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Wednesday, December 26, 2012

THE USE OF CASAVA


Cassava (Manihot esculenta) or Tapioca or UbiKayu in Malaysia is a plant with a lot of usefulness, especially its “root” or generally called as “Cassava Root”. Cassava tubers was grown in some countries which is consumed as staple food are considered as the most importance part of cassava plant. The cassava root or locally known as UMBISI (Tubers) in Malaysia are consumed as edible as food and it is also used as the raw materials in agro-based industry, animal feeds and industrial. The young leaf of cassava are cooked as nutritious vegetable in most tropical country as traditional food. The processed cassava are for Starch, Plastic Product,  Snack Food, Food additive ingredient and many other purpose. This article I would like to share my knowledge the use of cassava in Malaysia as a reference only.


A)CASSAVA CHIPS AND PELLETS: 
are used in various industries as follows:- 

1. Animal Feeds: 

It is used as the ingredients of animal feeds as a source of carbohydrate, Protein and other minerals. The cassava is prepared for poultry (Ayam Kampong), goats, duck and many others. The cassava root chopped and fermented to increase the nutrition content.

2. Alcohol: 
It is used for producing alcohol for the liquor or 'tuak' in Malaysia for native community and is processed to manufacture traditional alcohol.

3. Gasohol: 
To be used for producing Ethanol and mixed with fuel which is a renewable energy source. Thailand grows gasohol cassava variety in east low fertile area also for the bio-fuel industry.


B) CASSAVA STARCH: 
It is used in various industries, for instance, 

1. Food and Beverage: 
The cassava starch will be used in both its original form and its other modified forms, for instance, the instant noodle, sago, seasoning sauce including beverages

2. Sweeteners: 
They are glucose and fructose which are used as the sweeteners in the beverage industry.

3. Textile Industry: 
It is used for slipping the thread and to make the thread being without hair during the weaving and to fortify the thread including the cloth printing in order to make the cloth being shining and durable.

4. Paper Industry: 
To mix it with the paper in order that the paper pulp to be tough and thick. The huge biomass produce from cassava planting are processed for paper industry. However in Malaysia it does't happen.

5. Glue Industry: 
To use it for producing glue including any products whose their mixture is the glue. I use the cassava glue since young age during school era for many years.

6. Plywood Industry: 
To use it in form of glue made from cassava starch in the process of plywood manufacture in order to make the plywood become qualified, tough and durable;

7. Medicine Industry: 
To use it as the diluent of capsule medicine and pill in the related industry. A number of chemical content in cassava processed according for this purpose.

8. Monosodium Glutamate: 
To use it for producing the MFG for seasoning food was among popular cassava product known worldwide. The crystal white powder form sold as best seasoning ingredients and palatable.

9. Bio-Degradable Material Products: 
To use the cassava starch to be transformed as product by mean of adding the bio-degradable substance to be in place of plastic.

10. Cassava Leaf : 
To be raw material of animal feeds in order to increase protein or color substance in egg

11. Cassava Root
The cassava root or tubers are the most important part of the plants. However, many smallholders does not like to grow cassava due to the soil fertility problems after nmany round of growing cassava in an area.

12. The Stem:
To burn it to become charcoal generating high heat but without smoke with special method. Normally 15 - 25% of the stem are recycled as planting material. The stem also processed for paper product and other softwood product. 


By,
M Anem
Senior Agronomist
Horticulture Division
Putrajaya, Malaysia.
(27 Oct 2012)

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