Friday, September 19, 2014

ROSE APPLE - TROPICAL FRUITS

ROSE APPLE (Syzygium jambos) is it a type of berry, a pear or an apple? As I told my friends from Europe, this remarkable fruit is not what it name intends, an apple but in Malaysia are known as JAMBU AIR. It was grown and native to Malaysia since I was plucking the fruits surrounding my house in Muar, Johor for many years. Apparently my friend said that rose apple looks more like a pear and it taste like a watermelon. Actually this rose apple are juicy , red in color and attractive for dish decoration. Now I wonder why many people call it rose apple? Where the does name came from and what exactly is a rose apple? Let’s find out in "Anim Agro Technology" about the not very popular fruits in Malaysia called as Rose Apple for our knowledge.

I presume it was called 'Rose Apple' because of the crispy fruits smell and taste like rose water. I really like to eat this fruits of fully ripe with sweet taste. The scientific name for rose apple actually is Syzygium jambos. While its English name varies not only is it called rose apple it is also refer to as the Malabar plum Plum, Rose Malay Apple Wax Apple and also as Water Apple. My corlicks from Dutch did mention about this fruit known as 'Rozenappel ahile' and in Spanish known as 'Pomarrosa'. The French also given a various name to this fruit such as  Jamrosat, Jambrosade, Jam-rose and Pomme rose. In other literatura, I found out that the German called this fruit as Rosenapfel and Malabarpflaume. Even this fruit originate from the South East Asia and its part of the Myrtaceae (myrtle family) but the distribution able to reach South America and Australia nowadays.




ALL ABOUT ROSE APPLE:
The Leaves: 
The leathery leaves grow opposite each other on short, thick stems that clasp the twig. They are oblong in shape, narrower at the stem end. They are 2 to 10 inches long, 1 to 6 inches wide. They are pink when young and become dull, light-green above and yellowish-green beneath when mature

The Flowers: 
A showy terminal inflorescence, usually with four whitish-green flowers on the outside of the crown. The flowers have a faint fragrance and grow in loose clusters of 3 to 7 at the end of branches. The petals are pale yellow, yellow-white or pink and the stamens are uni-colored. In Indonesia the tree blooms twice a year, in July and again in September. The fruits ripen in August and November.

Fruits: 
Fruits are about 5 cm long with a whitish-green colour, but colour variations exist including red skinned fruits. The skin is thin and waxy. The rose apple or jambu fruit has a shiny, thin skin which varies from white to light red. About 1 inch long and 1-1.5 inches wide, they are shaped somewhat like a pear with a narrow neck and a wide apex. The fruit curves in and forms a concave indentation from which stiff sepals and the style protrude. The flesh is white or pink, slightly fragrant, crisp and juicy with a faint sweet flavor. The fruit has about 1-3 seeds which, together with the roots, are considered poisonous. Red and white jambu are found in Indonesia. The red jambus are the smallest fruit, sweet and juicy, with the white ones being very acidic. In Malaysia there is a wide variety of color, ranging from palest green, delicate blush pink to deep crimson and a sort of brownish red. Green jambu are very crunchy but not as juicy.

Height:
Grow as a shrub or as a medium-sized tree. 7 to 12 meter. Jambu is a small tree or large shrub which grows on the average of 10 to 20 feet in height. Branches grow close to the ground from a short, crooked trunk. The crown is open and non-symmetrical. It likes plenty of rain evenly spaced throughout the year

Climate and weather: 
Requires a tropical or near tropical climate. Growth at altitudes up to 900 meter. Type of soil: Prefers deep loamy soil. But can tolerate sand or limestone with very little organic matter. Planting Distance: Spacing (close range) 8 meter and Spacing (wide range) 12 meter. Insect pests: Few insect problems. Aphids. Diseases: Sometimes there is visible mould growing on honeydew excreted by aphids. Leaf spot. Anthracnose. Fusarium root rot.

Harvesting: 
Pick by hand from the tree. The young fruit and ripe fruit are almost uniform in  a bunch. Fruits should be eaten or used soon after picking because they spoil soon. Fruits ripen over an extended period of time in proper cold storage. The price of rose apple in fresh market ranged between RM 4.00 - RM 8.00 per kilogram depending on the freshness, sizes, variety and the location of the shops. 

Uses:
Eat the fruits fresh (the skin can be eaten too). Fruits are crisp with the taste (and smell) of rose-water. Fruits are hollow, the core contains a small amount of inedible fluff. I like too eat fresh rose apple during peak season and it fresh from farm. The fruit also processed to make a 'Halwa' and 'Rojak' as dessert. Sayonara! Thanks....
 
Rose Apple arranged for sale.
By,
M Anem
Senior Agronomist
Serdang Agriculture Station
Selangor, 
Malaysia.
(9 JamadilAkhir 1434H)

Tuesday, September 9, 2014

BLACK PEPPER PROPERTIES


BLACK PEPPER or the botanical Name as Piper nigrum has an Indian name of Kali mirch/Milagoo is rich of medicional values. Other namesof this plant are Lada Hitam (Malaysia/ Indonesia) - Black Pepper and Lada Putih Malaysia/ Indonesia) - White Pepper, Pimienta negro (Spanish), الفلفل الأسود (Arabic), poivre noir (French), schwarzer Pfeffer (German), svartpeppar (Sweedish). Pepper is one of the oldest and most important of all spices. It is known as the 'king of spices' .Black pepper is the whole dried fruit, while white is the fruit subjected to the treatment in water with the mesocrap removed. Both varieties are ground and used in a powdered form. Pepper is a native of Western Ghats of India.

Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BC. J. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia, its most important source was India, particularly the Malabar Coast, in what is now the state of Kerala. Peppercorns were a much prized trade good, often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today.

The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper, the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". In fact, it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. Chile peppers, some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper, were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe.





Properties of pepper
Black pepper is stimulant, pungent, aromatic, digestive and nervine tonic. Black pepper is very useful in in relieving flatulence. Pepper has a stimulating effect on the digestive organs and produces an increased flow of salvia and gastric juices. It is a good home remedy for digestive disorders. Powdered black pepper thoroughly mixed with malted jagerry may be taken in the treatment of such conditions. Pepper is beneficial in the treatment of cold and fever. A pinch of finely ground pepper mixed with honey taken twice day is effective in amnesia or dullness of intellect. Pepper is an effective remedy for cough caused due to throat irritation. Pepper is useful in pyorrhoea or pus in the gums. Powdered pepper and salt mixture when massaged over the gums relieves inflammation.

Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicine in India. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation, diarrhea, earache, gangrene, heart disease, hernia, hoarseness, indigestion, insect bites, insomnia, joint pain, liver problems, lung disease, oral abscesses, sunburn, tooth decay, and toothaches. Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems, often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit; pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging.


By,
M Anem
Senior Aronomist
Kuching, Sarawak,
Malaysia.
(5 Ramadan 1435H)



Thursday, September 4, 2014

COFFE INDUSTRY IN ASEAN

COFFEE (Coffea spp) among polupar crops in ASEAN country with the total production is about 153,268 metric tons about 26% of the world production. The coffee producers are Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. The total coffee exports, whereas the total coffee consumption is approximately 11,000 thousand - 60 kilogram bag or 7.5% of the words consumption in this regions. From my observation and study, the ASEAN coffee consumption has steadily increase from about 4.8% of the world consumption in 2013 to 7.4% due to various factors. However I found that the ASEAN coffee exports has steadily increase from 36,490 mt to to higher amount (2.1 million mt). As for the export type, 80-85% are the green coffee followed by soluble coffee (10-15%) and the remaining as other forms. For the exports of the green coffee beans, Vietnam shares 97.5% of coffee production especially exported to USA, China, Hong Kong and other developed country. Indonesia are the largest coffee growing area with 1.23 million hectare scattered throughout the islands involves for 1.9 million smallholders. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" I would like to share my knowledge about status of coffee industry among ASEAN countries.

Challenges in coffee industries in ASEAN includes to increase yield without expanding land area for coffee production, value addition, renew old coffee tree, increase operation management and quality control. Coffee plantation need lots of men-power during harvesting period that comprise for 66% for the costs of production. The input costs such as chemicals, fertilizer, irrigation facility and other inputs increasing from 2008 Oil Crisis until today. For coffee in future the opportunities in ASEAN I believe are favourable demographics (good condition for coffee to be grown) due to large population with rising middle class especially for coffee drinking society. Coffee is considered high end category with the introduction of various coffee products in the markets. Recently the StarBuck Coffee hits most of ASEAN cities as a high class expensive coffee outlets. More farmers has to sustain their plants and increase productivity through various approaches.

Malaysia grown about 5,668 hectare of coffee with annual production about 16,600 metric ton valued at RM10.9 million. Coffea robusta and Coffea liberica are two varieties grown in Malaysia in three major states that was Joho, Selangor and Perak. Most coffee growers are smallholders with an average farm size of 1.0 hectare. In 2012, Malaysia export RM13.4 million of tea, coffee, cocoa and spices (Malaysia Statistic Department). Growing trends of coffee decreasing every year in Malaysia and change their coffee farms to oil palm or other promising commodities. From my observation in Johor for 10 consecutive years, most farmers refuse to replant their coffee due to the high costs for harvesting (65% of total costs of production), uncertain ex farm beans price, low productivity, attack by pests and diseases and low returns compare to other sectors.Thanks. 

Prepared by,
M Anem
Senior Agronomist,
Mini MAHA Melaka,
Dataran MITC,
Melaka,
Malaysia.
(29 Ramadan 1435H)   

Tuesday, September 2, 2014

Invasive Alien Species - MALAYSIA (Pt 4)


Invasive Alien Species (IAS) as define by the National Invasive Species Council as an alien species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm to human health. Most countries are signatories to one or more international agreements that include provisions for the protection of biodiversity from the negative impacts of Invasive Alien Species (IAS). IAS is an introduced species and established in areas outside its natural distribution of an area or country. Under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Malaysia as one of the signatory nation and is committed to develop national strategies, plans or programs for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity resources. In Malaysia, the spread of IAS had caused enormous economic and environmental losses such as reduce agricultural productions, harm to human health and destroyed of scenic view. Alien species introduced into the local habitats had caused threats to native species and its ecosystem and their occurrences ranged from various taxonomic groups that include viruses, bacteria, fungi, mosses, invertebrates, fi sh, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. As globalisation and transportation becoming more rapid, expanded opportunities are being provided for plants, animal and microorganisms to move beyond their natural range. Some of the alien species do not harm species, habitats and ecosystem and instead provide significant benefi ts for farmers, traders and nation’s economy. However, some species may become invasive and can be costly for industries, competent authorities, site managers and society as whole. Some impacts on the biodiversity and ecological functions may be irreversible. Thus, the issue and threat of invasive alien species are very real and signifi cant as exemplified by cases such as Papaya Ring Spot Virus, papaya Dieback, Coco Pod Borer, Diamondback Moth, Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) and Koi Herpes Virus (KHV) and many others. They have incurred losses to the agriculture industry amounting to millions of Malaysian Ringgits.

The spread of invasive alien species is creating complex for reaching challenges that need to address through concerted effort among the competent authorities. The action plan proposed on IAS in Malaysia will provide continued efforts to increase the awareness and information to the various stakeholders on the importance of alien species and ways to tackle them in balancing conservation and management 
of the resources with continued economic growth. I wish to congratulate the National Working Group for coming up with the Action Plan for Invasive Alien Species and urge all players in this fi eld to come forward and together strive towards achieving the targets and goal of the CBD Program of Work to ensure of the continued sustainable use of the national biological resources. Finally I look forward to the successful implementation of the action plan along with continuing and strong financial support from the Central Agencies of the Government of Malaysia. This article in "Anim Agro Technology". I would to share the information about IAS based on DOA's report.

Status of IAS in Malaysia
There are several incidences IAS invading this country. These incidences had great impact to the agriculture economy affecting crop production, fi sheries and livestock. However, the impact to the biodiversity is not well known judging from feedback of stakeholders. Some of the important IAS that had been establish in Malaysia are:


LIVESTOCK

1. Avian Influenza
Avian influenza is a viral disease cause by H5N1. In early August 2004, Malaysia reported its first outbreak of H5N1 in poultry. The other incidences were also reported in February/ March 2006 in the states of Perak and Pulau Pinang. Presently, Malaysia has successfully controlled the disease in the poultry sector and is now considered free of Avian Influenza. There is no report indicating that this disease had infested human in Malaysia.


Info of Avian Flu (From Wikepedia)
"Bird flu" is a phrase similar to "swine flu," "dog flu," "horse flu," or "human flu" in that it refers to an illness caused by any of many different strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. All known viruses that cause influenza in birds belong to the species influenza A virus. All subtypes (but not all strains of all subtypes) of influenza A virus are adapted to birds, which is why for many purposes avian flu virus is the influenza A virus. (Note, however, that the "A" does not stand for "avian"). Adaptation is not exclusive. Being adapted toward a particular species does not preclude adaptations, or partial adaptations, toward infecting different species. In this way, strains of influenza viruses are adapted to multiple species, though may be preferential toward a particular host. For example, viruses responsible for influenza pandemics are adapted to both humans and birds. Recent influenza research into the genes of theSpanish flu virus shows it to have genes adapted to both birds and humans, with more of its genes from birds than less deadly later pandemic strains.

While its most highly pathogenic strain (H5N1) had been spreading throughout Asia since 2003, avian influenza reached Europe in 2005, and the Middle East, as well as Africa, the following year. On January 22, 2012, China reported its second human death due to bird flu in a month following other fatalities in Vietnam and Cambodia.  Companion birds in captivity and parrots are highly unlikely to contract the virus, and there has been no report of a companion bird with avian influenza since 2003. Pigeons do not contract or spread the virus. 84% of affected bird populations are composed of chicken and farm birds, while the 15% is made up of wild birds according to capture-and-release operations in the 2000's, during the SARs pandemic. The first deadly Canadian case was confirmed on January 3, 2014. 
Read the article on Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3 before. Thanks.
 
By,
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Taman Saujana,
Precint 11, Putrajaya,
Malaysia.
(15 Syawal 1435H)

Monday, August 25, 2014

Invasive Alien Species - MALAYSIA (Pt 3)

Invasive Alien Species (IAS) as define by the National Invasive Species Council as an alien species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm to human health. Most countries are signatories to one or more international agreements that include provisions for the protection of biodiversity from the negative impacts of Invasive Alien Species (IAS). . IAS is an introduced species and established in areas outside its natural distribution of an area or country. Under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Malaysia as one of the signatory nation and is committed to develop national strategies, plans or programs for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity resources. In Malaysia, the spread of IAS had caused enormous economic and environmental losses such as reduce agricultural productions, harm to human health and destroyed of scenic view. Alien species introduced into the local habitats had caused threats to native species and its ecosystem and their occurrences ranged from various taxonomic groups that include viruses, bacteria, fungi, mosses, invertebrates, fi sh, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. As globalisation and transportation becoming more rapid, expanded opportunities are being provided for plants, animal and microorganisms to move beyond their natural range. Some of the alien species do not harm species, habitats and ecosystem and instead provide signifi cant benefi ts for farmers, traders and nation’s economy. However, some species may become invasive and can be costly for industries, competent authorities, site managers and society as whole. Some impacts on the biodiversity and ecological functions may be irreversible. Thus, the issue and threat of invasive alien species are very real and signifi cant as exemplifi ed by cases such as Papaya Ring Spot Virus, papaya Dieback, Coco Pod Borer, Diamondback Moth, Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) and Koi Herpes Virus (KHV) and many others. They have incurred losses to the agriculture industry amounting to millions of Malaysian Ringgits.
 
 
The spread of invasive alien species is creating complex for reaching challenges that need to address through concerted effort among the competent authorities. The action plan proposed on IAS in Malaysia will provide continued efforts to increase the awareness and information to the various stakeholders on the importance of alien species and ways to tackle them in balancing conservation and management 
of the resources with continued economic growth. I wish to congratulate the National Working Group for coming up with the Action Plan for Invasive Alien Species and urge all players in this fi eld to come forward and together strive towards achieving the targets and goal of the CBD Program of Work to ensure of the continued sustainable use of the national biological resources. Finally I look forward to the successful implementation of the action plan along with continuing and strong financial support from the Central Agencies of the Government of Malaysia. This article in "Anim Agro Technology". I would to share the information about IAS based on DOA's report.

Status of IAS in Malaysia
There are several incidences IAS invading this country. These incidences had great impact to the agriculture economy affecting crop production, fi sheries and livestock. However, the impact to the biodiversity is not well known judging from feedback of stakeholders. Some of the important IAS that had been establish in Malaysia are:
 

AQUACULTURE

1. Algar Suckermouth Catfish (Hypotomus plecotomus)
The species originated from South America. Algae sucker mouth catfish or armored catfish or the Municipal Catfish or locally as 'Ikan Bandaraya" as it is popularly known has been found in the Klang-Gombak tributaries in Selangor. They are herbivorous that feeds on detritus and algae (Makan lumut pada dinding aquarium dan dasar akuarium). Feeding is done by plowing along the substrate and using the thick-lip toothy mouth to scrape planting materials (filamentous algae, diatoms) from hard surfaces or to suck up fine sediments. Specimens in aquaria may live more than 10 years. Sucker mouth catchfish are capable of breathing air and extrating oxygen  through the gut lining.

 


2. Redclaw freshwater Crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus)
Red claw is a native to Tropical Queensland and the Notherm Teritory of Australia. It was introduced in Malaysia in 1990 in Kluang, Johor as food fish and ornamental purposes. Red claws has been shown to be susceptible to many diseases and parasites. In Europe and the America's, a devastating fungal disease 'crayfish plague' has caused the mortality in both cultured and wild fresh water crayfish stocks.   

 

3. Peacock Bass (Cichla ocellaris)
The Peacock Bass, or Peacock Cichlid, is a native of South America. It has been introduced deliberately by anglers as a popular game fish into several small ponds and in mining pools at Batu Gajah and Air Kuning in Perak. It has been reported to be seen in Lake Chenderoh among the fishing enthusiast. This lake is interconnected to Lake Air Ganda, Bersia and Temenggor. This species is very aggressive, a fast breeder and preys on smaller native fishes. It has been identified as a potential cause for ecological imbalance in its adapted habitats.

 


4. Flower Horn (Cichlasoma spp.)
Flower horn or Luo Han or Lump Head Cichlid is a very aggressive and hardy fish. It has been introduced into Malaysia from Taiwan in early 1990s. It can survive under harsh conditions even in drains. It breeds easily and together with its voracious appetite, has the potential to wreak the ecosystem. High price flower horn were kept in aquarium tank while the low quality fish were disposed at nearest pond or waterway causing more damage to the ecosystem.  Continue to read articles in Part 1, Part 2 and Part 4. Thanks.
By,
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
MAHA International Exibition Complexs,
MAEPS< Serdang, Selangor,
Malaysia.
(15 Syawal 1435H)

Tuesday, August 12, 2014

Invasive Alien Species - MALAYSIA (Pt 2)

Invasive Alien Species (IAS) as define by the National Invasive Species Council as an alien species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm to human health. Most countries are signatories to one or more international agreements that include provisions for the protection of biodiversity from the negative impacts of Invasive Alien Species (IAS). . IAS is an introduced species and established in areas outside its natural distribution of an area or country. Under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Malaysia as one of the signatory nation and is committed to develop national strategies, plans or programs for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity resources. In Malaysia, the spread of IAS had caused enormous economic and environmental losses such as reduce agricultural productions, harm to human health and destroyed of scenic view. Alien species introduced into the local habitats had caused threats to native species and its ecosystem and their occurrences ranged from various taxonomic groups that include viruses, bacteria, fungi, mosses, invertebrates, fi sh, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. As globalisation and transportation becoming more rapid, expanded opportunities are being provided for plants, animal and microorganisms to move beyond their natural range. Some of the alien species do not harm species, habitats and ecosystem and instead provide signifi cant benefi ts for farmers, traders and nation’s economy. However, some species may become invasive and can be costly for industries, competent authorities, site managers and society as whole. Some impacts on the biodiversity and ecological functions may be irreversible. Thus, the issue and threat of invasive alien species are very real and signifi cant as exemplifi ed by cases such as Papaya Ring Spot Virus, papaya Dieback, Coco Pod Borer, Diamondback Moth, Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) and Koi Herpes Virus (KHV) and many others. They have incurred losses to the agriculture industry amounting to millions of Malaysian Ringgits.

The spread of invasive alien species is creating complex for reaching challenges that need to address through concerted effort among the competent authorities. The action plan proposed on IAS in Malaysia will provide continued efforts to increase the awareness and information to the various stakeholders on the importance of alien species and ways to tackle them in balancing conservation and management 
of the resources with continued economic growth. I wish to congratulate the National Working Group for coming up with the Action Plan for Invasive Alien Species and urge all players in this fi eld to come forward and together strive towards achieving the targets and goal of the CBD Program of Work to ensure of the continued sustainable use of the national biological resources. Finally I look forward to the successful implementation of the action plan along with continuing and strong financial support from the Central Agencies of the Government of Malaysia. This article in "Anim Agro Technology". I would to share the information about IAS based on DOA's report.


Status of IAS in Malaysia
There are several incidences IAS invading this country. These incidences had great impact to the agriculture economy affecting crop production, fi sheries and livestock. However, the impact to the biodiversity is not well known judging from feedback of stakeholders. Some of the important IAS that had been establish in Malaysia are: 


8. Virus Disease of Honeybees
Sacbrood is a virus infectious disease that affects the brood of honeybees. Before 1994, indigenous bee, Apis cerana indica has been reared in wooden boxes to produce honey and there was no incidence of sacbrood disease reported. However in early 1994, Apis cerana cerana which is more productive than the native bee was imported from Southern China as a way to improve local honey production. The  importation has indirectly introduced sacbrood disease among the indegenious bee. It caused the colonies to collapsed. Loss of bees and colonies could lead to loss of income and pollination of plant species.


9. Water Hyacinth (Echhorrnia crassipes)
This plant is a native of Amazonian, Brazil. It was fi rst brought into Singapore from Hong Kong in 1963. In Malaysia this weed thrive in still or slowly moving waters. It propagates very rapidly by seeds and offsets and now a serious threat to irrigation and drainage canals and all aquatic environments. It is the world’s most serious water weed and its dominance could bring about reduction or elimination of other species.
10. Barnyard Grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) 
Barnyard grass, locally known as rumput sambau is said to be a native of Europe and India. It was detected in 1925 and suspected to be introduced unintentionally through contaminated seed. Since then, the weed has spread and becomes the most important weed in all rice growing areas. Barnyard grass is the most serious weed in all rice growing areas. In direct-seeded rice fi eld, both weed and rice seeds germinate at the same time, but this weed grow faster and mature earlier. In dense stand of the weed, the rice tillers are reduced by up to 50%, thus the yield will severely reduced.
11. Siam Weed (Chromolaena odorata)
The siam weed, Chromolaena odorata is native to Central America and tropical South America. It is a weed throughout Southeast Asia. The species was introduced into Malaysia from Thailand, since then it has become widespread in coconut growing areas in Peninsular. Presently, the weed is widely distributed in all crops growing areas. However, the presence is not extensive and posing no threat to the crop as they are easily removed by digging, uprooting or slashing.

12. Itch Grass (Rottboellia cochinchinensis)
In Malaysia, it is believed to have been introduced from Thailand. It was fi rst detected in the state of Perlis in 1980 bordering Thailand. The weed was observed to be abundant along a small stream, around swampy areas and ponds in the plantation. In 1985, the weed had spread to about 80 ha of sugarcane and spread throughout the plantation by 1992. It could establish in other crops such as groundnuts, cassava, citrus, rice, papaya and pineapples. Its rapid growth and spread makes it a very competitive and diffi cult to control. At present, it is a serious weed of sugarcane cultivation.
13. Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus)
Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus), an invasive and obnoxious weed, is native to Mexico. It has invaded many countries including India, Australia, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka and caused disastrous ecological and economical losses. In India, the weed has been rated as the “worst weed” of the century. Lately, this weed has been discovered in Hulu Yam, Batang Kali, Selangor. The weed was found growing in open places, areas adjacent to the wall of some vegetable farms or in small bushes and along the Sungai Liam river. The presence of this weed was fi rst reported by Dr S. M. Rezaul Karim, professor, Faculty of Agro-based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan in September 2013.

14. Golden Apple Snail(Pomacea canaliculata) and 
Black Apple Snail (Pomacea insularus)
Apple snails (Pomacea spp.) is indigenous to South America, fi rst introduced to Taiwan in 1980, Japan in 1981, Philippines in 1982 and Thailand in 1986 for commercial purposes. It has been illegally brought into Malaysia for the same purpose. It was fi rst detected in fi shponds in Puchong and Subang, both in Selangor in 1991. The snail species found in Puchong identifi ed as P. insularus, while in Subang as P. canaliculata. Initial control measures aimed to contain and eradicate the snails were unsuccesful . Currently these pests has spread throughout the country. Continue to read articles in Part 1, Part 3 and Part 4. Thanks!.
By,
M Anem, 
Senior Agronomists,
Federal Agriculture Center,
Serdang, Selangor,
Malaysia.
(15 Syawal 1435H)