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Sunday, June 24, 2018

CHINA PINES FOR MALAYSIA APINEAAPPLES



Fruits of their labour: Ahmad putting a pineapple on an arch after launching MPIB’s 60th Anniversary Pineapple Fiesta at the

Pontian Trade Centre, Johor.

PONTIAN: Apart from the Musang King durian craze, the Chinese consumers are also craving Malaysia’s fresh pineapples, with demand for the fruits going up drastically. According to Agriculture and Agro-based Industry Minister Datuk Seri Ahmad Shabery Cheek said the Malaysian Pineapple Industry Board (MPIB) aimed to increase production by 20% next year to cope with demand from China. Demand from the Chinese market, he said, was for 100 tonnes each week but Malaysia was only able to provide about 60 tonnes. The MD2 pineapple variety, he said, seemed to be a favourite. “It can be sold in China for around RM20, twice its usual price,” he said after launching MPIB’s 60th anniversary Pineapple Fiesta here yesterday. The increase in pineapple production and export, said Ahmad Shabery, would also help boost many related industries, such as logistics, warehousing and shipping. “China remains a huge market for us and next month, we are planning to visit the country again to promote our birds’ nests,” he said.

On durians, Ahmad Shabery believed that both Malaysia and China would come to an agreement on exporting fresh fruits into the country within a year. “Due to China’s strict biosecurity and food safety regulations, whole durians cannot be brought into the country because our fruits come in contact with soil when they fall from the trees,” he said, adding that his ministry was working with farmers to ensure that the criteria were met. “It took us 10 years to bring pineapples into China and we have been trying for 12 years to bring in jackfruits as well. These things take time,” he added. Besides China, Malaysia exports durians to Singapore, Australia, Hong Kong and the Middle East. This article posted from Vienna, Austria during my 2 weeks family vacation to Europe....
By,
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Bandar Baru UDA,
Johor Bahru, Johor,
Malaysia.
(3 Ramadan 1439H).
Posted from:
Top 3, No 10, Favouriten,
Karmarschgasse, 1100,
Vienna, Austria.
(10 Syawal 1439H).

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

PINEAPPLE - READY FOR CHINA EXPORTS

Malaysia's more than 2,000 pineapple farmers and plantation owners have been told to step up their game to meet an increased demand for the fruit crop in the Chinese market.  Malaysian Pineapple Industry Board (MPIB) chairman Datuk Samsol Bari Jamali said Malaysian pineapples had become a new source of wealth for the country as its export value was expected to increase from RM155 million a year to RM320 million by 2020. He said China was among the newest export destinations for Malaysian pineapples, and there was still huge potential for Malaysia to tap into the big Chinese market. "So far, Malaysia can only meet 10 per cent of the demand for pineapples in China. The consumer demand for Malaysian pineapples is there, and meeting the demand and quality standards of China is something not many countries are able to fulfill.

According to Director General of MPIB, Dato' Mohd Anim Hosnan, Malaysia only began exporting pineapples in a big way to China on Oct 12 , 2017 this year. Since then, not less than 150 metric tonnes of pineapples are sent to China each week," said Dato Mohd Anim at the MPIB headquarters in Bandar Baru UDA here today. He said penetrating the Chinese market remained a challenge, but this could be overcome if more industry players stepped forward to collaborate with the MPIB. Samsol Bari said on the local front, Malaysian consumption of pineapples had seen encouraging growth as the ratio of consumer to pineapple consumption increased from 1:10 five years ago to 1:14 now. "Local pineapple farmers can earn about RM5,000 a month from every hectare cultivated. Farmers are also able to sell fresh pineapples at high prices as there are more hybrids of the fruit now," said Samsol Bari. He said Johor remained the highest producer of pineapples as the state accounted for 68 per cent of the farming areas that cultivated the fruit.

By,
 M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
KPF Pineapple Farm,
Ulu Tiram, Johor BAhru,
Johor.
Posted from Room 604, Confort Hotel Olomuc Center,
Wolkerova 29, Olomuc,
Chech Republic.
(5 Syawal 1439H)





Saturday, June 2, 2018

AQUAPONIC AGRICULTURE - FOR FUTURE


Aquaponics farming, is the combination of the aquaculture (raising fish in contained tank) and hydroponics (growing in soil with recirculating water system). Water is drained from the fish tank, into a media bed using the gravity force. The theory of aquaponics is to maximize the use of the energy and nutrients produced in the system in order to harvest the maximum amount of healthy vegetables and fish protein from it. Combining the fish, water and plants can produce vegetables and fish in a very small space, and only little water is required to make this system run. History of this technology known as ''Aquaponics'' was originally from China and some parts of the system were developed in other countries of the world. In China, farmers knew that land livestock’s waste is able to increase the production of vegetables and fruits. Besides, they also realized that different types of fish had different tolerance against the level of the animal waste. Bigger livestock waste would absorb more oxygen and cause many fish to die. The system was then refined to make sure they could raise chicken, utilize their waste, and minimize the number of fish dying due to high concentrated waste in the same time. This is what we call as conventional farming system. However, this system doesn’t decrease the amount of fresh water needed. A large amount of the water is wasted and evaporated with this conventional farming system. Due to the climate changes, and increase in the cost, finally the system has been evolved to the modern aquaponics farming system that we have right now. This article I am able to share in ""Anim Agriculture Technology"" telling story about the aquaponic agriculture related to Malaysia environment.


How actually this technology works?.. Green method of farming produces healthier food and requires lesser amount of fresh water compared to the agriculture in conventional farming system. This system is environmentally friendly and can greatly reduce the energy consumption for planting, harvesting, shipping food and greenhouse gas emission. Fish and plants are grown together in a closed loop re-circulating system, with a low rate of water usage. Fish waste is delivered to a settling tank to remove heavy waste, before being sent to growing trays to provide nutrition to the plants. At the same time, plants provide a natural filter for the water to provide fish healthy fresh water. This relationship between fish and the plants is to create a sustainable ecosystem, to make sure both the plants and fish thrive in terms of production. This technology are best for those stay in urban area such as at an area like condominium, flats and terrace housing estates in future. It will be able to provide fresh, clean and safe food for them. Thanks.
By,
M Anem,
Senior Agronomiat,
141, The Light Hotel,
Seberang Perai, Pulau Pinang,
Malaysia.
(2 Rabiulawal 1439H).

Sunday, May 27, 2018

URBAN AQUAPONIC in MALAYSIA


AQUAPONIC FARMING is the combination of the latest aquaculture (raising fish in contained tank) and hydroponics (growing in soil with recirculating water system). Water is drained from the fish tank, into a media bed using the gravity force. The theory of aquaponics is to maximize the use of the energy and nutrients produced in the system in order to harvest the maximum amount of healthy vegetables and fish protein from it. Combining the fish, water and plants can produce vegetables and fish in a very small space, and only little water is required to make this system run. From my observation to avoid chemical-laden vegetables in their diet, urban farmers are opting for another method of organic farming-aquaponics. The method is a marriage of this new concept of aquaculture and hydroponics (soil-less growing of plants) - fish are reared in tanks, their wastewater provides food for growing plants, and the plants act as a natural filter for the water which the fish live in. So fish and plants grow together in one integrated system. Normally one aquaponics enthusiast is aircraft maintenance training instructor. For the past eight years my observation at home has been an experimenting ground for the green farming method where most of frmers hopes to develop a system that suits Malaysian homes and environment. This article at 'Anim Agriculture Technology' I would like to share the information about urban aquaponic in Malaysia.

When we started out for aquaponics it was unheard of here although it was already gaining popularity elsewhere. So we pretty much learnt everything himself. Now we is so well-versed in the subject that we is sought after for advice by other enthusiasts in the small but growing local aquaponics community. The chemical-free farming is picking up as more and more people like my neighbour namely Mr Ramli to practise the farming method known as aquaponics. A basic aquaponics set-up consists of water from the fish tank below is channelled to the planter box above to nurture the plants, which filter the water and keep it clean.  The chemical-free nature of this green farming method was what caught the aircraft engineer’s attention. While hydroponic farming relies on nutrients made from a concoction of chemicals, salts and trace elements, aquaponics on the other hand needs no chemical input as nutrients for the plants come from fish waste. Ammonia in the waste is converted by bacteria into nitrates that are food for plants. In hydroponic systems, the water needs to be discharged periodically as salts and chemicals build up in the water which becomes toxic to the plants. In aquaponics, little water is needed as it is recycled. From my observation water is added only if it is lost through evaporation. The water in the fish tank is clear as it is filtered by the growing vegetation. There is no odour and the fish I rear do not have any bad taste or smell.

In this concept, nothing can beat farming in soil, but it requires large areas and plenty of water. Aquaponics is said to require only a quarter of the size of a farm to produce the same amount of vegetables. Plus you get a double crop and fish and greens. We believes aquaponics is the perfect farming method for urban areas since it requires minimal space. At his home in Putrajaya we has built aquaponics systems to demonstrate that they can fit into a typical 6.1m x 21.3m (20ft x 70ft) link house. The most basic system consisting of a 1m x 1.5m fish tank and a smaller planting box above it is compact enough to fit into an apartment balcony. It’s a modular system, so one can combine two or three sets to get a bigger set-up, as displayed in his backyard. There, he has put together three fish tanks in which he rears tilapia, catfish, lampang and jade perch. Stacked above the fish tanks are four smaller planter boxes holding potted chillies, rosemary, eggplant, mint, lemongrass, chives, pandan, turmeric and a herb, sambong nyawa. And that’s the beauty of aquaponics with both fish and farm share the same space. Crops like pandan, rosemary, chillies and chives can all be grown aquaponically.

There are different approaches to prepare aquaponics. In the raft-based growing system, plants are placed in holes in a foam raft that floats in a channel or tank filled with fish effluent water. This method is suitable only for plants where the roots can be submerged all the time. It is most appropriate for growing salad greens and other fast-growing, relatively low-nutrient plants. Another method has the plants growing in planting media such as gravel, coir and clay pellets. The grow bed also functions as a filter and living space for bacteria which are essential for breaking down elements in the water into a form which the plants can absorb and use. The watering system here is known as the flood and drain method. In this method, water from the fish tank is pumped up to flood the planter box. Once it reaches the desired level, it drains back to the pond through a siphon that is placed to the correct height. This gives oxygen to the plant roots and moisture to the bacteria that converts ammonia to nitrates in the wastewater.

This technology applicable to compact aquaponics sets that can fit an apartment balcony. Most people chose to work with this system as it is suitable for most types of vegetables. Initially there are problems controlling the water level. But then it persevered and after some eight months of tinkering with the system where it working properly and reliably with just a slight modification to the siphon he replaced the cylindrical tube with a funnelled one. Because of that than the global aquaponics community now calls that design with the siphon. Then most people used to sell basic aquaponics sets to enthusiasts but has since stopped.  They will understand better how the system works. If I sell the set, people expect it to work perfectly and if it doesn’t, they just give up. It is better for people to do their own research, learn, evaluate, then they’ll know what they’re doing. The system failures are usually due to normally poor understanding and a lack of information. Common problems encountered are pump failure and a clogged siphon. Both must be cleaned periodically. One must also grow suitable plants. A new aquaponics system must have time to mature that is, for the nutrients to build up. If one immediately grows nutrient-demanding plants such as tomato and chillies, it will fail. One should first start with less demanding low-nutrient plants such as mint, basil and kangkung. Sometimes, the plants may not thrive due to certain nutrient deficiencies, so supplements such as iron or Epsom salt (to promote chlorophyll growth) can be added. It was not had to buy fish for a long time but he has yet to grow enough greens to fully feed his family. In most cases try to make it easier for everybody and by developing an aquaponic system that works best here.  The system available to everyone so most people can try out this method of planting. All urban farmers will certainly look forward to that day. Thanks!!...

By,
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Room 1624, Hatten Hotel,
Bandar Hilir, Melaka,
Malaysia.
(21 RabiulAwal 1439H)
Published on 27 May 2018.


Monday, May 21, 2018

FUTURE AGRICULTURE IN MALAYSIA (Part 4)

Malaysia has been very successful in developing the country through organized and focused economic development plans. Globally, Malaysia has been ranked sixth in 2014 on Ease of Doing Business, 20th in the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) 2014- 2015, 33rd in the Global Innovation Index (GII) 2014 and 56th in the World Happiness Index (2013). These indicators have proven that Malaysia is capable to promote a new orientation of development focusing towards sustainability and inclusiveness. The development of a nation relies on its citizen’s wellbeing. One of the important factors of citizen’s wellbeing is food production. Food is the backbone of the society. Realising this, the Malaysian government has taken steps to ensure that there is enough food for its population. The emphasis is on self-sustainability. The agro-ecosystem management and agricultural planning has been revamped to ensure sustainability and to include green-friendly values and equitable and inclusiveness of all stake holders. Sustainable development must be inclusive enough to cater and address the population’s wider needs for food, feed, fuel, fibre, furniture, pharmaceuticals and felicity. Constraints such as high implementation cost, and pressing health and environmental concerns require governments to plan their agriculture development towards being trim, mean, focused, not wasteful, savvy, and compliant to the global environmental and health standards. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" I would like to share some basic information with all readers.


Opportunity in Food Security

Realizing the changing trends and understanding the problems facing food security can create opportunity for better frameworks and plans. It is estimated that almost 1 billion of the world population are depending on farming for their livelihood and source of food and nutrition. This intensifies the need for the development of the agro ecosystem by implementing new ideas for better produces, such as biotechnology in agriculture. Malaysia has invested RM86.8 million in biotechnology to improve crop yield and increase resistance to environment stress. Malaysia’s target is to scale-up and strengthen productivity of paddy farming from 4MT/ha/season (4 metric tonne per hector per season) to 8MT/ha/season by 2020 by utilising improved mechanisation in paddy farming through biotechnology.

Technology in Food Security

Global Positioning System (GPS) – the idea of using GPS is to allow farmers to work during low visibility field conditions such as rain, dust, fog, and darkness by giving the position of the agriculture land. GPS helps in three aspects of production, namely data collection of information input through satellite data, grid soil sampling, yield monitoring and remote sensing. For Geographic Information System (GIS) - GIS enables the coupling of real-time data collection with accurate position information, leading to efficient manipulation and analysis of large amounts of geospatial data. These data assist farmers to make informed decisions and to be more efficient in agriculture activities. Fir the Inter Cropping the growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same field. This approach helps to reduce both time and space utilization. However, inter cropping requires skilled labourers as it deals with two or more crops. The use of Hybrid Seed because Hybrid seed is being introduced to increase the efficiency and optimizing productivity of plant, as well as to ensure the sustainability of plant production and to create friendly environment.

Environment sustainability

Globally the agriculture contributes 17-30 percent to Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To lessen the agricultural impact on environment, steps are taken to grow quality and quantity of natural resources that could reduce emissions per tonne of production and optimize overall water usage. For the issues and challenges in future environment sustainability. The Green House Gas (GHG) in Agriculture production, especially meat produce, causes greenhouse gas impact on the environment. Research has concluded that if current trends continue, food production alone will reach, if not exceed, the global expectation for total GHG emissions in 2050. As the world’s population increases and diet preference shifts towards meat-heavy, particularly in western diet, the effect of greenhouse gas emissions could accelerate faster than expected to harm the environment and human.


Resource utilization

In the case of resource utilization it is estimated that cropland will expend by 42 percent by 2050. However, the expansion would not bring any benefit if not effectively utilised and managed. Currently, it has been identified that 198 million hectare of land with about the size of Mexico is used to produce food that are not being consumed. Resources management is not only about effective utilisation, but includes the management of activities to avoid harming the environment. For example, efficient usage of water in farming, and the usage of fertilizer, pesticide and herbicide that improves agriculture production but does not pollute the environment.

By,
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Room 1807, Imperial Heritage Hotel,
Bandar Hilir, Melaka,
Malaysia.
(19 RabiulAwal 1439H)

Tuesday, May 8, 2018

FUTURE AGRICULTURE IN MALAYSIA (Part 3)

Malaysia has been very successful in developing the country through organized and focused economic development plans. Globally, Malaysia has been ranked sixth in 2014 on Ease of Doing Business, 20th in the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) 2014- 2015, 33rd in the Global Innovation Index (GII) 2014 and 56th in the World Happiness Index (2013). These indicators have proven that Malaysia is capable to promote a new orientation of development focusing towards sustainability and inclusiveness. The development of a nation relies on its citizen’s wellbeing. One of the important factors of citizen’s wellbeing is food production. Food is the backbone of the society. Realising this, the Malaysian government has taken steps to ensure that there is enough food for its population. The emphasis is on self-sustainability. The agro-ecosystem management and agricultural planning has been revamped to ensure sustainability and to include green-friendly values and equitable and inclusiveness of all stake holders. Sustainable development must be inclusive enough to cater and address the population’s wider needs for food, feed, fuel, fibre, furniture, pharmaceuticals and felicity. Constraints such as high implementation cost, and pressing health and environmental concerns require governments to plan their agriculture development towards being trim, mean, focused, not wasteful, savvy, and compliant to the global environmental and health standards.  Agro-ecosystem Management Challenges is a factor to be discussed. Malaysia is blessed with fertile soil and abundance of rain since it is located on the world tropical belt. However, to meet the agriculture development objectives Malaysia has to face and overcome social, economic and environmental challenges. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" I would like to share some basic information with all readers. 



The Way Forward in Agro-ecosystem Management
The World Economic Forum’s new vision for agriculture establishes three goals: (i) Food security, (ii) environment sustainability, and (iii) economic opportunity; and sets specific decade-by-decade milestones for each goal. Malaysia gives full consideration on all the issues and challenges in planning its agriculture development.

(i) Food security Food security requires increased agricultural production, better food distribution, reduced food waste, improved access to and participation in the global food system by the poor, and consumer education to promote healthy food choices. The vision clearly states that the ideal of food security is to meet nutritional needs while providing affordable food choices.

Issues and challenges in Food Security Demographic – By 2050, it is estimated that 60 percent more calories are needed to feed the projected 9 billion world population. The population of Malaysia at that particular time is estimated to be 43 million. History has proven that lack of food production due to inefficiency in agriculture management caused 950 million world populations to face hunger during the food crisis of 2012.

Managing agricultural yield has been identified as one of the major constraints that need innovative approaches in order to achieve food security. Maintaining agriculture yield required the ability to overcome changing climate. Climate change can reduce agricultural yield up to 20 percent in many areas of the world, and this gives serious impact to food production.

Lack of skilled workers also affects agriculture production as it creates inefficiency in managing agriculture yield.

Managing food waste – The average food wastage in Malaysia was 450 tonnes a day in 2009. The amount increased to 15,000 tonne a day in 2013.

Food waste is a global issue. It has been estimated that 24 percent calories of food produced for people are not consumed. This type of wastage can be avoided if the management of food distribution is done in a proper and effective way.
By,


M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Room 1807, Imperial Heritage Hotel,
Bandar Hilir, Melaka,
Malaysia.

(19 RabiulAwal 1439H)

Tuesday, May 1, 2018

MALAYSIAN CARAMBOLA FOR FUTURE

 CARAMBOLA or STARFRUIT (Averrhoa carambola) are the new rining tropical fruit from Malaysia in future. From its humble beginnings as a backyard crop recently carambola is now one of Malaysia’s leading exports in fruits segments. Also known as starfruit for its star-shaped appearance when sliced, the commercial cultivation of carambola started in the 1970s. By 1988, exports to Hong Kong and Singapore markets were reported to reach 13,000 tonnes, worth USD 4.9 million. Realizing the economic potential of carambola and tropical fruits, the Fruit Industry Development Program (1986-2000) was developed by the government with the following key strategies such as an expansion of local and export market through a strategic marketing plan; Intensify crop management research to reduce labor and production costs; and develop a working group to coordinate relevant agencies, producers, and exporter. There are more than 14 carambola varieties in Malaysia registered with Department of Agriculture and only 3 varieties are recomended for commercial growing. The three varieties ar B1 (for fruits production), B17 (for fruits production) and B10 (as pollinator donor).  This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" share my experties about carambola industry in Malaysia.

In Malaysia research and development of tropical fruit including Starfruit by the Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI). Some research conducted on breeding for quality improvement of selected carambola varieties. As early as initiated in the 90s, the breeding programme was implemented to improve fruit quality, skin color, brix levels, and vitamin C content. Two commercial cultivars (B10 and B17) and two pollinator cultivars (B2 and B11) were used as parents in a diallel cross designed to yield hybrid seeds. Three hybrids (B1711, B1002, and B0217) were then selected after the fruits underwent sensory evaluation against commercial cultivars (B10 and B17). These hybrids have the potential to be exported at full maturity (‘Golden carambola’) for fresh consumption and are currently undergoing location verification trials. The study on floral biology and clonal compatibility also assiste the pollination activity for starfruit.  At 2.79-2.98%, the natural fruit set of carambola is low. Flowers are heterodistylous, meaning flowers have two different distinct lengths of pistil styles. Studies showed that to improve fruit set, cross pollination between flowers with short styles and long styles are required. From my opinion it was recommended to plant pollinator clones with long styles such (B2 or B11) in plot of commercial clones with short styles (B10) to improve fruit set and increase yield.

There are mineral nutrition of carambola able to promote this fruits globslly. From a field experiment, evidence suggested that carambola production is inhibited by high application of nitrogen fertilizer. A combination of a low level of N and a high level of K was found beneficial for growth and yield. For example, 0.8 kg N and 4.8 kg K2O/tree/year is recommended for commercial application. Upon further investigation the applying heavy doses of fertilizer exposed the plants to intermittent shocks that manifested in leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate. The fruit fly management is the most critical factors in carambola management syatem. The fruit flies known as Bactrocera fruit flies (Dacus dorsalis complex) are the most threatening insect pest of carambola. Without proper control, they can damage all fruits and can lead to a total loss of crops. There are collaboration together with Department of Agriculture, the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), MARDI developed PROMAR, a protein bait for fruit flies. A mixture of one part of PROMAR and two parts water/insecticide is recommended to be spot sprayed on a small portion of the foliage, reducing fruit fly damage to less than 2%. This is practical technology to control the pests on carambola industry.

Quality production under netted structures are an alternatives developed to curb fruit fly attack. Traditionally, carambola is planted in an open field. Fruits have to be bagged individually to protect them from pests, which is very labor-intensive. Planting carambola inside a netted structure reduces labor costs and fulfills the stringent requirements of importing countries to comply with global good agricultural practices requirements. This also aims to adhere with the Fruit Fly Free Place of Production (FFFPP) Protocol for exporting to countries such as China and the United States. The carambola mature tree able ti produce optimum yield st 5-8 years of planting. Aside from pests, heavy rains can reduce fruit set. Some Netted structures can reduce the impact of rain on the fruit. This is crucial for October-December, where heavy rain is common. Under netted structures, the total fruit weight per tree was 75 kg, estimated at 33.7 t/ha. Meanwhile, the fruit weight for trees in the open field is only about 6 kg per tree, yielding 2.7 t/ha. After grading, the exportable fruit from trees in netted structures (23.8 t/ha) was higher than those in the open field (2.2 tons/ha). Regarding fruit quality, fruits that are exposed to direct sunlight look bleached and lacked luster and firmness. While bagging under the netted structure is not a requirement, wrapped fruits were observed to be crunchier. Fruits under netted structures also have lower pesticide residue.


Study on preharvest Calcium application is a new finding. 

This is due to the carambola treated with calcium was shown to have thicker and denser cell walls, which lead to firmer fruit texture and wing tips that can reduce bruising damage from handling. ince 1989, carambola exports are have been transported by sea. Fruit handling crucial in long voyages to ensure that the fruits arrive in excellent condition. MARDI developed an index that determined the proper maturity to harvest fruits for specific markets. The recommended packinghouse procedures for sorting, cleaning, grading, and packaging were also determined. Carambola has claimed as 'superfruit from Malaysia' due to its nutrition value. Studies show that carambola is rich in apigenins and procyanidins, which are polyphenols known for health benefiting properties. This fruit also contains phenolic acids such as conjugates of ferulic and sinapic acid. Three types of procynadin are relatively abundant: procynadin dimer, procynadin trimer and a conjugate of procynadin. Procyanidins belong to the class of flavon-3-ols, which are present in green tea. Procynadins are found to be effective scavengers of free radicals and possibly have chemopreventive properties. The contents of phytochemical profile of carambola is unique for the relative abundance of apigenin sugar conjugates. Apigenins are flavones commonly found in celery and sweet red peppers. The synergistic effects of the complex mixture of these compounds may have additive health benefits. With the rich source of different phytonutrients, carambola can be considered as a superfruit t hat can be processed as a functional drink or ingredient. Thanks.



 
By,


M Anem,
Senior Agronomit and Experts,
PPK Carambola Farms,
Tanjung Malim, Perak,
Malaysia.
(10 Rejab 1428H)