Monday, February 8, 2016


CIKU (Manilkara sp.) what I know is a tropical fruit also known as sapodilla are belongs to the family Sapotaceae. Ciku has varoius names globally which the most comman names are Ciku and Sapodilla. The scientific name are Manilkara zapota (older generic names: Achras zapota, Manilkara achras). In Malay the names are Ciku or chiku (Malaysia), Sawo manila, Sawo londo (Indonesia). From my reading, other common names for this fruit are Naseberry, Chicle, Sapodilla plum, Chico, Chiku and chico sapote.
Various species of Manilkara are grown and used worldwide for different purposes. The species most popular for its fruit in Malaysia and Southeast Asia is the Manilkara zapota. This was also called Manilkara achras, Achras zapota or Nispero achras, a derivative of the Greek word achras for the Pear tree, because of the fruit's semblance to a pear.  Few variety grown iin Malaysia are Ciku Betawi (C61), Ciku Jantung (C62), Ciku Subang (C63), Ciku Mega C19 (C64) and Ciku Raja (C65). Both Ciku Jantung and Ciku Subang are the moste planted ciku variety in Malaysia and high yielding. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" I share my experts about ciku.

Origins and distribution of ciku or so called Sapodilla is a Tucatan native of Central America, Mexico, Northeastern Guatemala and the West Indies, where it is a tall tree found in forests. Spanish colonialists brought a variety of Manilkara to Manila where it became known for its fruit. From the Philippines, it spread throughout Southeast Asia as a popular fruit tree. Various species of sapodilla are now cultivated in Africa, India, East Indies, Philippines, Malaysia, the tropics and sub-tropics of the Americas and they are found in almost all tropical countries worldwide. Ciku has around 75 related species across the globe although this tropical version is much shorter than its counterparts in Central America. They are used for various purposes such as for its fruit, wood or medicinal properties. Manilkara duplicata, also known as Mimosops globosa was introduced into the Singapore botanical gardens for its fruit and timber. In Malaysia, sapodilla is grown mainly in the state of Terengganu, Pahang, Perak, Johor and Melaka. Out of 1,115 hectare planted only 515 hectare producing fruits estimated about 6,505 mt in 2014 (Source: Agriculture Department of Malaysia, 2014). Germination is through seeds that remain viable for a few months. Grafting and marcotting is used to obtain cloned material.

Description of ciku tree is evergreen, has a conical crown and can grow up to 30 m in height. Its bark is light-grey and becomes fissured with age. The plant with all its parts has a white latex. Young twigs of the plant are covered in a woolly layer. Its leaves are spirally arranged, dark green and pointed. It has a stalk measuring between one to three cm. Ciku flowers are white, fragrant, solitary and bisexual. They have six free sepals in two whorls on the outside. The petals are joined in a corolla tube with six lobes and six stamens and six staminodes. The ovary is superior and it has a single style. The flowers remain open even at night. The major flowering period for sapodilla in Singapore is in the month of May. Ciku fruits are brown, round or oblong, with a thin skin. The flesh is sweet, soft and reddish-brown. The fruits have very few seeds in them that are hard, black, elongated, flattened and shiny.

Usage and potential of ciku are consumerd as Food and other purposes. Sapodilla is usually consumed fresh. The fruit is commercialised for its flavour in sherbets, drinks, butter and ice-creams. It is also cooked to make pies, syrups, sauces, jams and is fermented to get wine or vinegar. In Indonesia, the young shoots are eaten either raw or after steaming with rice. The latex of the tree M.balata, that coagulates into what is known as chicle, formed the base for chewing gums before synthetic materials came to be used.  For medicinal usage, in Java, sapodilla flowers are used in a powder with other ingredients that is rubbed on the stomach of women after child birth. The seeds, flowers and bark contain tannin and saponin with medicinal properties. The Malaya use the seeds in treating fever. Seeds are also diuretic. Unripe fruits are eaten to stop purging and to treat mild diarrhoea. The Chinese use the bark to treat diarrhoea. The other uses is the gum-latex of the plant Manilkara balata is used in dental surgeries, in making transmission belts and as a substitute for gutta percha from Palaquium spp. for insulating electrical cables. The wood of Manilkara kauki and Manilkara duplicata is used to make furniture. Henry Ridley noted that Manilkara kauki timber was used in coffin making in Malaya. Thanks.

M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Sg Udang Tropical Fruit Farm,
Melaka Tengah, Melaka,
(2 Jan 2016)

Thursday, January 7, 2016


Definition Aeroponics

Aeroponics is a way of planting vegetables in the air without the use of soil, nutrients sprayed on plant roots, water containing nutrient solution to be sprayed in a mist form to the plant roots. Hanging plant roots planted will absorb the nutrient solution. Water and nutrients are sprayed using sprinkler irrigation. 
Vegetables cultivated in aeroponic system proved to have a good quality, hygienic, healthy, fresh, crispy, flavorful, and accompanied by a high flavor. Aeroponics vegetables can fill the needs of the opportunities the middle to upper levels of society. Therefore, aeroponics system begin developed in Indonesia.
Aeroponics comes from the word meaning aero air and ponus which means power. So aeroponics is to empower the air. Actually, aeroponics is a type of hydroponics(empowering water) because water containing nutrient solution to be sprayed in a mist form to the plant roots. Hanging plant roots planted will absorb the nutrient solution. 

Benefits of Aeroponics System

Aeroponic system can provide benefits to farmers who have no land, because aeroponics not need soil, but the planting medium in the form of Styrofoam that roots hanging in the air. So it can be used as land in the yard. Principles of aeroponics is as follows: given a Styrofoam Gazette planting holes with a distance of 15 cm. using a foam wedge or rockwool, child vegetable seedlings planted in the planting hole. Plant roots will dangle freely down. Under the strands of Styrofoam, there are sprinkler (atomizer) that emits a mist of nutrient solution up to the roots. One of the key advantages of the cultivation of aeroponics is the oxygenation of each grain of a fine mist of nutrient solution that gets to the root. During the trip from sprinkler hole to get to the root, grain will be anchoring the oxygen from the air to the levels of dissolved oxygen in the grain increases. Thus the process of respiration in the roots can take place smoothly and produce a lot of energy. In addition to skilled management, production with aeroponic system can meet the quality, quantity and continuity.

Excess Aeroponics System

  • Aeroponic system helps the environment by saving water,
  • reducing the amount of human labor involved.
  • Because of its roots in the air, the plants receive more oxygen.
  • Additional oxygen that plants receive can alleviate the growth of harmful pathogens.
  • Plants can take advantage of carbon-dioxide-rich oxygen in the air to perform photosynthesis.

The equipment needed to make the system Aeroponics as follows: 

1. Irrigation Sprinkler 
2. Jet Pump (water pump) 
3. Nozzle Sprinkler 
4. Pipe PVC / PVC 
5. Ethylene Pipeline 
6. Rokcwool 
7. Styrofoam 
8. Solution Nutrition 
9. Seedlings 
sistem aeroponik

How it Works Aeroponics System

The use of sprinklers can ensure a timely watering, water quantity and water distribution uniformity at ground level on an ongoing basis during production plants with low labor input. The way it can create water vapor in the air around the plants as well as provide a layer of water on the roots, thus lowering the temperature around the leaves and reduce evapotranspiration. 

Beam or carburetion system can be regulated intermittent, on-off (on-off) alternately using a timer, long dead origin (off) no more than 15 minutes because the fear the plants will wilt. When the pump is turned off, granular solution attached to the roots for 15-20 minutes. Emission or fogging can only be given during the day only. However, this method is not recommended because the chance of nutrition in plants shrinks. Many examples of models aeroponics that can be searched on the internet for inspiration 


Saturday, January 2, 2016


HOT CHILI (Capsicum frutescens) includes very few varieties of chillies but it does include that most famous pepper of all. In Malaysia it was known as Cili Padi, Chili Api or Cili Burung and in Indonesia are called as Cabe Rawit. This chilli under Solanaceae family used as cooking ingredients for speciality hot taste from Capsaicin.  Some of the other cultivars and varieties included in this group are Piri piri, also known as African Devil or African Bird’s Eye, Malagueta pepper, Malawian pepper, Kambuzi pepper and Thai pepper, also known as Chilli Padi, Bird’s Eye Chilli or Siling Labuyo. From my study it shows that the origin of this species is not very clear but it is believed to have originated in Central or South America. In Malaysia it was a wild crop before domesticated for home consumption especially planted in the pot. From so called the origin country it spread rapidly across the tropical and sub tropical regions in this area. Today, this species is endemic throughout the major portion Asia, Australia, Northern, Central and Western South America. and mant other countries. This article I would like to share the info about small sized chilli with locally known as Cili Api (Hot Chilli) in "Anim Agriculture Technology" as an agriculture technical support to all reader.

Physical Characteristics of this chillies are similar to the Bigger Chillies (Capsicum annum) or locally known in Malaysia as Cili Besar.  Unlike other species such as the Chinense and the Annum species, there is very little variation in the pods of the Frutescens chillies. Typically, the stem grows straight up throughout and it curves suddenly just before it touches the flower head. The plants are compact, with the stems growing only between one and four feet tall, depending upon prevailing conditions. Their short, shrubby growth and large number of flowers make them ideal for container gardening.  Bushes of Capsicum frutescens often produce clusters of pods, which grow just above their foliage and giving them a beautiful ornamental look similar to that of the C. Annuum species. A single plant is capable of producing more than 100 pods. Most pods or berries are small and grow erect and are typically lanceoloid or ellipsoid-conical in shape. The flowers have the same width throughout and are white with a greenish yellow or greenish white corolla. The fruit are yellow when they start off and as they mature they darken and turn red gradually, displaying various shades of red during the different stages of ripening. 
Uses of Capsicum Frutescens are as for cooking purposes in most local dishes. One cuisine that uses an abundance of these chillies is the Nasi Goreng Kampong (Fried Rice with chilli) where this species has been consumed ad a compulsary spices. It was reported cultivated since the nineteenth century. It shows up occasionally in South East Asia and other country where the dishes provide hot taste.  The Piri Piri pepper is a popular and much used variety in the Southern regions of Africa. In other area this chilli is also commonly known as 'Pili Pili 'which literally translated means 'pepper pepper' in the Swahili language. The Colonial British used to call it African Devil because of its deadly, intense heat for this chilli. It used to grow in the wild earlier and it is now being cultivated to some extend extensively and used in the production of spices. Piri Piri is very popular in Asian and African cuisine and is often used to prepare a particular type of marinade for roasting chicken. When running short of time, sprinkling pili piili pepper flakes over the meat just before serving can do the trick too. Today, more and more people everywhere are choosing to plant this species for ornamental purposes because of the eye catching display of the profusion of erect peppers growing in colourful ripening patterns. The chillies grow erect and mature to a red or orange colour. At full growth they measure about .0.75 inch length and have a diameter of about 1.25” inches.
Growing of this Cili Api (Capsicum frutescens) in Malaysia are one of the popular spices. There are normelly planted in the pot and produce fruit all year round. Like most other the chilli and pepper plants, Capsicum frutescens also relish heat and humidity and have very small tolerance to drought. They grow best when planted in moist, well-drained soil that is fertile and enriched with organic matter. If anybody are growing them outdoors, sow the seeds or transplant the seedlings only after the soil has warmed considerably and the danger of frost has passed. In addition to this, choosing a spot where they will get the full sun gives the plants the best possible conditions for them to thrive. Local proce for chili api in Malaysia ranged from RM8.00 0 RM20.00 per kilogram. To pluck each small fruit of chillies is relatively consume longer time compere to the Cili Besar. I hope this articel relevang with intrested parties. Wasallam!. 
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Aras 13, Condonomium Flora,
Seri Kembangan,
(2 1/ 2016/

Thursday, December 31, 2015


CIKU (Manikara sapota) is delicious fruit crop of tropical and sub-tropical countries like in Malaysia and is cultivated on about 564 hectares with production at 2,018 metric tons globally. In Malaysia, the mature fruits are also used for making jams as these provide a valuable source of raw material for the manufacture of industrial glucose, pectin and natural fruit jellies. They are also canned as slices. The ciku fruit when fully ripe is delicious to eat (See photo above). The pulp is sweet and melting. The usual practices are to eat only the pulp. The fruit skin can also be eaten since it is richer than the pulp in nutrient value. Ciku is rich in protein, fibre and minerals like phasphorus, calcium and iron. The tree bear fruit within three years of planting. The main reasons for its popularity is that there is no danger of pilferage of the ripened in the basket and not on the tree where it remains hard, astringent and rich in latex. The fruits not peeled show abnormal amounts of tannin contributed by the skin. The moisture range from 69-75.7 per cent; ascorbic acid from 8.9 to 41.4mg/100g; total acid 0.09 - 0.15 per cent, pH from 5-to 5.3; total soluble solids at the ratio of 17.4:23.7; recorded for carbohydrates and glucose range from 5.84 to 6.40 per cent. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" I share to all reader about ciku fruits.

The fruit has medicinal also as young fruit is boiled and its decoction is used in diarrhoea; an infusion of young fruits and flower relieves pulmonary complaints; decoction of old, yellowed leaves is good for cough, cold and diarrhoea; tea made from bark is also helpful in diarrhoea and dysentery. Fluid extract of crushed seeds and leaves lowers blood pressure; paste of seeds is applied on stings and bites. The latex is used in filling tooth cavities. A major product of tree is the gummy latex called “chicle”, containing 15 per cent rubber and 38 per cent resin. Ciku is a tropical fruit and can be grown from sea level up to 1,200 meters. The plant prefers warm and moist weather and can grow both in dry and humid areas. The coastal climate is best suited to this plant. At higher altitudes, the fruit quality and tree health suffers. Areas with an annual rainfall of 125-250cm are highly suitable. Rain or cloud weather during any part of the year does not do any harm to fruit set. The optimum temperature is between 11°C and 34°C.

The fruits mature in four to six months after flowering. In the tropics, some cultivars bear almost continuously. The main season is from December to March. The trees bear from May to September with the peak of the crop in June and July. The most ideal soils are deep alluvium, sandy loams, red late rites and medium black soils. Sometimes it is planted in dry river beds with alluvial soil. Good drainage is essential. It is highly drought resistant and approaches the date palm in its tolerance of soil salinity. Pits of the size of 60cm 3 or 100 cm 3 are prepared at a distance of 8-10m both ways depending upon the planting material and the soil. In low rainfall areas and soils with low fertility closer spacing is followed, while in heavy rainfall tracts and fertile soils a wider spacing is recommended. The top 30cm soil is kept separately on one side of the pit, while the remaining is kept on another side. The pits are left for a month or two. The best time for planting is during early monsoon. Grafts, budded plants or layers are planted one in each pit in the centre and care is taken to ensure that the roots are gently and firmly pressed and stakes are provided to avoid wind damage. The plants are then watered.

Ciku plant can tolerate drought conditions to some extent, yet it responds well to irrigation. Young plants are watered regularly during dry season having long breaks in the monsoon and in winter and summer at an interval of six to 12 days. Young plants are given irrigation once in eight days from October onwards till monsoon starts. Protective irrigation is given during first two seasons. Newly planted trees need small and frequent feedings to become established. Fertilizers that contain 6-8 per cent nitrogen, 2-4 per cent available phosphoric acid and 6-8 per cent potash give satisfactory results. First year applications should be made every two to three months beginning ¼ pound and gradually increasing to one pound. Thereafter, two to three applications per year are sufficient, in amounts proportionate to the increasing size of the tree. Ciku is mostly propagated by seeds which remain viable for many years if kept dry. It takes five to eight years to bear. Since seed may not come true, vegetative propagation is desirable. Veneer grafting with seedlings as rootstock is the best method. Air layering and rooting of cuttings have not been successful. Thanks folk!.
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Projek  Ciku, Air Molek,
Melaka Tengah,
Malacca, Malaysia.
(30 Dec 2015)

Wednesday, November 25, 2015


In Malaysia the langsat and duku (Lansium domesticum) are very popular fruits in tropical Asia and particularly so in Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines. For me that was born in Malaysia found that this fruit are similar in size and appearance to the loquat except that the white translucent flesh separates into 5 segments of different sizes. The fruit has a sub-acid flavour with none of the extreme sweetness characteristic of many tropical fruits. It has an appeal to European tastes. Neither the langsat nor duku have been grown to fruiting in Australia, and clonal importations have only commenced since the mid 1970s. The tree is more tolerant of lower mean temperatures, humidity and rainfall then the rambutan and pulasan, and cultural requirements are not exacting. From information provided by Department of Agriculture Malaysia, te genus Lansium which belongs in the family Meliaceae usually contains 6 or 7 species found native to India, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Langsat and duku are classified as a single species. However there are differences in tree form and fruit arrangement on the raceme. However unless there are points of difference which require explanation, langsat and duku are combined under langsat in descriptions in this text.

Tree Form of duku and langsat is a slender tree, 10 to 20 metres high with a straight trunk, slender upright branches, and an irregular or rounded crown. Duku tends to be less tall and has a wider crown than langsat. Leaves are large and divided into 5 to 7 alternately placed leaflets and one terminal leaflet. Leaflets are dark green and shiny above, light green and dull beneath and measure 150 to 200 mm long by 60 to 100 mm wide. The leaves are faintly hairy underneath (langsat) or hairless (duku). The Flowers are many-flowered inflorescences (racemes) are borne either singly or in groups of 2 to 5 on the trunk and large branches and are thus essentially cauliflorous. The racemes, erect at first but later drooping as the flowers and fruits mature, are 100 to 300 mm long, being smallest in duku. Flowers are about 12 mm wide and number about 20 to 30 arranged on a spike. Although unbranched, there are usually several spikes emanating from the branch or trunk in one spot. Flowers are perfect and sub sessile. There are 5 sepals and 5 petals which are rounded and imbricate. The stamens are united in a tube with 10 anthers on each flower. The style on top of the tiny ovary is very short and is capped with a 5-lobed stigma. Flowers have a sweet smell.
Duku and  Langsat fruits are slightly longer than wide in langsat and about 30 or 40 mm long. In duku they are round and 40 to 50 mm in diameter. There are commonly 15 to 25 fruits per spike in langsat and 4 to12 in duku. Another variant or sub species of the langsat grown in Indonesia called the kokosan (very acid to taste) has up to 50 very small fruit on each spike (Anon, 1975). Fruits of both langsat and duku have very short stalks, less than 4 mm long. The skin ripens to a greyish buff or pale muddy yellow colour with brown blemishes. The blemishes appear as the fruit ripens, and extend to cover the fruit when it is past maturity. In some forms of duku the fruits are pink. The skin may be very thin in langsat, or just less than 7 mm thick in duku, and is dull and covered with minute, short pale hairs. In langsat, (but not in duku) there is a milky sticky latex in the skin. The skin peels easily and cleanly from the flesh. The flesh of both is white, translucent and juicy. In langsat, flavour varies from sweet to sour, but in duku it is very delicate and sweet. The flesh separates easily into 5 different-sized segments. In duku most fruits have no seeds, but when present are up to 25 mm long by 12 to 18 mm wide. In langsat there may be 1 to 5 seeds in each fruit, each up to 18 mm length. Seeds have a thin green coating, are extremely bitter, and are firmly attached to the flesh. Fruits are very refreshing and large quantities can be eaten at one time without feeling particularly full - a fact confirmed by the writer whilst working in Borneo. Fruits are most commonly eaten fresh. In Malaysia the seedless or less seedy duku are skinned and bottled in syrup. The product is said to be delicious. In the Philippines, seedless segments can be frozen. The segments are placed in 70% syrup, frozen at minus 40° C and stored at minus 8° C. Frozen fruit remain white with no surface discolouration and the texture is very good. Whole fruits when frozen alone or in syrup are very palatable, but the skin quickly turns brown. Thanks for reading this article.
Source: Department of Agriculture (Horticulture Division)
M Anem,
Senior Aagronomist,
Horticulture Division
DOA MAlaysia
(Nov 2015) 

Wednesday, November 4, 2015



PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries and the most economically significant plant in the Bromeliaceae family. In Malaysia the pneapples cultivated all year round from a crown cutting of the fruit and produce flower in 8 -10 months and fruiting in 12 - 14 months after planting. There are about 14,000 hectare annually of pineapple grown in Malaysia especially in the state of Johore, Sarawak, Pahang and Kedah. The most popular variety planted are MD2, Morris, nenas Johor and Nenas Sarawak. Almost 70% of the planting are on peat soil and the rest on mineral soils. Pineapple are produced fresh for domestic and export market. Pineapples can be consumed fresh, cooked, juiced, and preserved, and are found in a wide array of cuisines. In addition to consumption, the pineapple leaves are used to produce the textile fiber piña in the Philippines, commonly used as the material for the men's Barong Tagalog and women's formal wear in the country. The fiber is also used as a component for wallpaper and other furnishings. The blog "Anim Agriculture Technology" posted an article about pineapple nutrition value and the benefit of it.


The flesh and juice of the pineapple are used in cuisines around the world. In many tropical countries such as in Malaysia, pineapple is prepared and sold on roadsides as a snack. It is sold whole, or in halves with a stick inserted. Whole, cored slices with a cherry in the middle are a common garnish on hams in the West. Chunks of pineapple are used in desserts such as fruit salad, as well as in some savory dishes, including pizza toppings and a grilled ring on a hamburger. Crushed pineapple is used in yogurt, jam, sweets, and ice cream. The juice of the pineapple is served as a beverage, and is also as a main ingredient in such cocktails as the piña colada. As the nutritional value, raw pineapple is an excellent source of manganese (76% daily value (DV) in a one cupserving. It also contain vitamin C (131% DV per cup serving). Mainly from its stem, pineapple contains a proteolytic enzyme,bromelain, which breaks down protein. If having sufficient bromelain content, raw pineapple juice may be used as a meat marinade and tenderizer. Pineapple enzymes can interfere with the preparation of some foods, such as jelly and other gelatin-based desserts, but would be destroyed during cooking and canning. The quantity of bromelain in the fruit is probably not significant, being mostly in the inedible stalk. Furthermore, an ingested enzyme like bromelain is unlikely to survive intact the proteolytic processes of digestion.

Health benefits of Pineapple fruit are tremendous. Fresh pineapple is low in calories. Nonetheless, it is a storehouse for several unique health promoting compounds, minerals and vitamins that are essential for optimum health. From about 100 g fruit provides just about 50 calories equivalent to that of apples. Its flesh contains no saturated fats or cholesterol; however, it is rich source of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber like pectin. Pineapple fruit contains a proteolytic enzyme bromelain that digests food by breaking down protein. Bromelain also has anti-inflammatory, anti-clotting and anti-cancer properties. Studies have shown that consumption of pineapple regularly helps fight against arthritis, indigestion and worm infestation. Fresh pineapple is an excellent source of antioxidant vitamin; vitamin C. 100 g fruit contains 47.8 or 80% of this vitamin. Vitamin C is required for the collagen synthesis in the body. Collagen is the main structural protein in the body required for maintaining the integrity of blood vessels, skin, organs, and bones. Regular consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body protect from scurvy; develop resistance against infectious agents (boosts immunity) and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the body.
It also contains small amount Vitamin A (provides 58 IU per 100 g) and beta-carotene levels. These compounds are known to have antioxidant properties. Vitamin A is also required maintaining healthy mucusa, skin and is essential for vision. Studies suggests that consumption of natural fruits rich in flavonoids helps the human body to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers. In addition, ananas fruit is rich in B-complex group of vitamins like folates, thiamin, pyridoxine, riboflavin and minerals like copper, manganese and potassium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids, helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure. Copper is a helpful cofactor for red blood cell synthesis. Manganese is a co-factor for the enzyme superoxide dismutase, which is a very powerful free radical scavenger. This article of the amazing pineapple nutritional value promote the usage of fresh fruits. Thanks.

M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Precint 11, Putrajaya,
WP, Malaysia.
(9 Rejab 1436H)

Monday, October 5, 2015


MANGO (Mangifera indica) is a tropical tree cultivated in many regions of India, and now its farming has been extented wide across the world in many continents. After flowering its fruits generally grow at the end of a long, string like peduncle, with sometimes more than one fruit to a peduncle. Each fruit measures 5 to 15 cms in length and about 4 to 10 cms in width, and has typical “mango” shape, or sometimes oval or round. Its weight ranges from 150 gm to around 750 gm. Outer skin (pericarp) is smooth and is green in un-ripe mangoes but turns in ripe fruits into golden yellow, crimson red, yellow or orange-red depending upon the cultivar type. Fresh mango season lasts from April until August. Mango comes in different shapes and sizes depending upon cultivar types. Internally, its flesh (mesocarp) is juicy, orange-yellow in color with numerous soft fibrils radiating from its centrally placed flat, oval-shaped stone (enveloping a single large kidney-shaped seed). Its flavor is pleasant and rich, and tastes sweet with mild tartness. A high-quality mango fruit should feature no or very less fiber content and minimal tartness. Mango seed (stone) may either has a single embryo, or sometimes polyembryonic. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" I share an info about mango nutritional facts for all readers.

Health benefits of Mangoes considered as one of the most valuable fruit especially in fresh consumption. Mango fruit is rich in pre-biotic dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and poly-phenolic flavonoid antioxidant compounds. According to new research study, mango fruit has been found to protect against colon, breast, leukemia and prostate cancers. Several trial studies suggest that polyphenolic anti-oxidant compounds in mango are known to offer protection against breast and colon cancers. Mango fruit is an excellent source of Vitamin-A and flavonoids like beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin. 100 g of fresh fruit provides 765 IU or 25% of recommended daily levels of vitamin-A. Together; these compounds have been known to have antioxidant properties and are essential for vision. Vitamin A is also required for maintaining healthy mucos and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in carotenes is known to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers. Fresh mango is a good source of potassium. 100 g fruit provides 156 mg of potassium while just 2 mg of sodium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure.

It is also a very good source of vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin-C and vitamin-E. Consumption of foods rich invitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful oxygen-free radicals. Vitamin B-6 or pyridoxine is required for GABA hormone production within the brain. It also controls homocystiene levels within the blood, which may otherwise be harmful to blood vessels resulting in coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke. Further, it composes moderate amounts of copper. Copper is a co-factor for many vital enzymes, includingcytochrome c-oxidase and superoxide dismutase (other minerals function as co-factors for this enzyme are manganese and zinc). Copper is also required for the production of red blood cells. Additionally, mango peel is also rich in phytonutrients, such as the pigment antioxidants like carotenoids and polyphenols. Thanks!.

M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Precint 11, Putrajaya,
WP, Malaysia.
(7 Rejab 1436H)