Sunday, February 22, 2015


ERWINIA PAPAYAE IS THE CAUSAL ORGANISM FOR PAPAYA DIEBACK SYMPTOMS Bacterial Crown Rot disease (Erwinia papayae) is known to be present in Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Indonesia and Malaysia. The first report of this disease in S.E. Asia was in Java in (von Rant, 1931). E. papayae was also reported as causing bacterial canker of papaya in the Caribbean by Gardan et al. (2004). Maktar (2008) confirmed that E. papayae is responsible for the papaya dieback symptoms occurred in Malaysia. Early symptoms included yellowing and necrosis along leaf edges followed by watersoaked areas on the bases of leaf stalks, crowns  and along leaf mid-ribs. Fruit symptoms included dark spots on the skin and water-soaked flesh . Later, necrotic and water-soaked areas developed on stems and spread to the internal tissues, followed by secondary fungal infections. In advanced stages bending of watersoaked leaf stalk occurs, leading to dieback, and death of trees . Early detection of the disease symptoms and destroying the affected plants seems to be the best control strategies at the moment.

Sunday, January 11, 2015


RICE HUSKS is a waste or by-product from processing agricultural products, rice mills to take grain as one of the topic to discuss today. Many urban people do not famililiar with the processing of padi husk during the milling for paddy. For them it’s such as a hard layer covering kariopsis consisting of two hemispheres called lemma and interlocked; a palea where will separate the chaff from the grain of rice. For the great capacity a machine, a grindstone capable of producing rice husk 10-20 tons of rice husk per day. The rice husk can be categorized as of biomass that can be used as raw materials for various needs industry, forage and energy or fuel. From the process of grinding grain usually acquired about 20-30 %, husk bran between 8- 12 % and milled rice between 50-63,5 % of initial weighting grain. In many observation done by agronomist, a rice husk has long around 8-10 mm, in width 2 mm, heavy 0.2 mm. Review the chemical composition, husk containing several chemical elements important such as the water level (9,02 %), Coarse proteins (3.0 %), Fats (1.2 %), Coarse fiber (35.7%), Ash (17.2 %), Basic carbohydrates (33.7 %). After certain processsing the chemical composition a rice husk (DTC-IPB) consists of Carbon substances (1.3 %), CharcoalHydrogen (1.5 %), Oxygen (33.6 %) and Silica (16.9%). This article ini "Anim Agriculture Technology" I would like to share ana article about the paddy husks.

The chemical composition as mention above so that  the rice husk could be used for a variety of purposes including used as a raw material for the chemical industry, especially chemical contents furfural that can be used as a raw material for the chemical industry. It also used as a raw material for building material industry chiefly of silica ( Sio2 ) that can be used to mix in portland cement making and as insulating material, husk-board and mix the red brick and industry. Other usage of this product are as an alternative fuel for the fossil fuel and energy source of heat on human activities, the cellulose high enough to provide the field and stable. The rice husk have bulk density 0,100 g/mls, the calorie between 3,300  - 3,600 of calories/ kg, with the heat conductivity 0.271 btu. The properties characteristic of a rice husk covering a heavy small around 122 pounds / m3, the ashes of the burning high temperature low melting point which ashes. Ashes of the burning ranging from 16-23 % with silica content senbesar 95 %. It is low because its melting point is alkaline and alkaline relatively high. Moisture (moisture content) in a generally biomasa higher than fossil fuels, however, the water vapor in the paddy rice is relatively small because the bran who dried up the process of grinding.

Volatile Ingredients of a rice husk is high, between 60-80 %, which fossil fuels is only 20 to 30 percent of the coal medium. Energy conversion produced more volatile substance derived from this compares with coals of fire (solid biomasa residue).To make use of husks easier, the rice husk is compressed into a form that can be simple not practical, and voluminous, are being charcoal husks and charred husks. Charcoal husks could easily be used as fuel for not smoking firebrands–at the calorie is quite high. The charred husks reports have a wider and more besides environment-friendly, as fuel the horticultural grown especially in a flowering plants. Most of Malaysian farmers does not fammiliar and bother about rice huska that cinsists for abaou 5% from total paddy dryweight. That's All Folk.

M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Putrajaya, Malaysia.
(18 RabiulAwal 1436H)

Friday, January 2, 2015



This "Anim Agriculture Technology" was first posted on 6 Jun 2010 with the title 'New Agriculture Blog". It was almost 4 years now with about 252 article posted all about agriculture technology. Among popular articles read by viewers this month are from the top 'Rain-shelter technology' followed by 'Guano - as organic fertilizer' , 'Chili in Malaysia', 'Coconut in Malaysia' and the fifth article are 'Growing banana in Malaysia'. The record shows that total viewrs until 31 December 2014 amounted for 220,427 mostly came form USA, Malaysia and UK, India and other ASEAN Countries. For all years of course the most popular article viewed are "Durian Clones in Malaysia" followed by 'Chillies in Malaysia". "Agriculture in Malaysia", 'Coffee in Malaysia" and "Agriculture in Malaysia". Average viewers monthly about 4,300 - 4,500.

I hope able to post more article in 2015. Happy New Year!.

M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
(1 January 2015)

Thursday, December 25, 2014


GUANO is a substance composed chiefly of the dung of sea birds or bats, accumulated along certain coastal areas or in caves and used as fertilizer. Guano also defined as any of various similar substances, such as a fertilizer prepared from ground fish parts.  History shows that guano is the most distinguished natural fertilizer known to mankind. The Inca civilization of South America used guano so extensively that the penalty for harming the animals that produced it was death. It has been used effectively in agriculture for hundreds of years. Pound for pound, barn yard manure or commercial fertilizer do not compare to guano for balanced plant food nutrients. Guano has the nitrogen for green growth. Phosphorus for roots and flowering. And the potassium for strong stems. Besides these three major nutrients, guano contains all the minor and trace elements for plants overall health. There are no fillers in guano. Everything in guano, even beneficial microbes, are useful and necessary for the soil, the roots and foliage of plant life. This article in "Anim Agro Technology" I would like to share the uniqueness of guano fertilizer for agriculture use. 

In Malaysia, we can say that bat guano is natures most highly refined organic fertilizer. Guano are able to start out as plant life. Normally in our ecosystem the insects eat from the plants then fly into the air and are eaten by the bats. The bat droppings fall to the cave floor and other significant habitat. Then the millions of guano beetle attacked the bat droppings and use it as their food so as the specific ants. And while the beetles are feeding on the bat droppings, billions of beneficial, decomposing microbes are also attacking and feeding on the bat droppings. The guano you purchase to fertilizer your plants is really no longer bat poop but a highly refined, nontoxic, not bad smelling fine powder, processed by nature into her choicest plant food. The processing by the beetles and decomposing microbes rendered the bat guano free of toxins and dangerous pathogens to humans other then opportunistic pathogens that are normally found everywhere in dust. Bat guano is an excellent inoculant to activate compost piles.

The nutrient content for guano fertilizer are Nitrogen (N), Phosforus (P) and Kalium (K) or NPK will average 10:3:1 but will very throughout the cave with the freshest being highest in nitrogen and the oldest being higher in non-volatile minerals especially phosphorus. Bat guano can be safely used in-doors as well as outside. Use on vegetables, herbs, flowers, all ornamentals, fruit and nut trees. Hydroponic growers have also used guano successfully by metering out small amounts into their solution. Guano is also an excellent inoculant to activate compost piles. Use 1 to 2 teaspoons per 6 inch of pot diameter. May repeat in 4 to 6 weeks. In the flower or vegetable garden use 1 to 3 quarts per 100 sq. ft. or 100 ft. of row. However, guano is a slow release fertilizer and will not burn even if used double the recommended amount. But,it is always better to use smaller amounts more often than large amounts less often especially in sandy soils. Homeowners have reported using guano one time on the lawn and could still see the good effects three and four years later.

Where the soil is bare and in pots, work it in shallow being careful not to damage roots (See photo right). Indoor slow growing plants or plants in low light require 1/4 to 1/2 less fertilizer than fast growing plants. Bat guano can be used year around in any soil. It helps bind loose soil and mellow up tight soils. It will even help control soil-borne diseases. Growing plants is more of an art than a science. It is the art most practiced in the whole world. Gardening is the only hobby that you can have your cake and eat it too. Using nature's finest fertilizer enhances the art and makes the hobby more enjoyable, fascinating and productive. Home gardening are preferred to use organic fertilizer for food safety, free from chemicals and fresh for consumption  Leafy vegetables, Herbs and few selected crop we are able to can grow. Thanks.


M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Room F618, Strawberry Park Resort,
Cameroon Highland,
(28 Syawal 1434H)

Friday, December 19, 2014


GRAFTING AND BUDDING are common to me as method of planting material production. In Malaysia this techniques normally practiced for fruit tree planting material production by many private sector in a mass production. From my literature reading I found that grafting is a historic method of propagating fruit, nut and ornamental trees. Its use by the Chinese has been documented as early as 1560 BC. The technique was discussed in detail by historic writers including Aristotle and Theophrastus and it became very popular in Europe during the Renaissance (1350 to 1600). Grafting is still important today and is the basis for commercial production of fruit, nut and many ornamental trees. This article I would like to share my knowledge of the factors influencing the budding succes based on my own experience and reading from few books regarding on budding techniques. 

There are reasons for grafting and budding techniques being practiced for many decades. From my observation on many private nurseries in Johor especially in Muar District, the grafting and budding are the most expensive forms of propagation. This issue frequently surpassing even micropropagation in terms of cost and labor involved. This techniques need skilled workers and genuine mother plants to ensure high successful rate. The skill worker sometimes fail to achieve a high successful rate due to weather condition such as long drought, heavy rainfall and other factors. However, grafting allows propagators to perpetuate clones that cannot be readily maintained or economically propagated by other means. From my experience shows that this method able to combine different cultivars into a composite plant with each part contributing a special characteristic. Change cultivars of established plants – TOPWORKING – including combining more than one scion cultivar on the same plant and for repair the plant injuries. It also able for disease indexing to test latent viral diseases. I found that this techniques suitable to study plant development and physiological processes. Grafting involves the union of a root system (called the UNDERSTOCK) with a shoot system (the SCION) in such a way that the cambiums are aligned and they subsequently grow to develop one composite plant. There are many methods and techniques used to accomplish this goal including BUDDING, a process wherein the scion is reduced in size and usually consists of only a single bud. 

The success of budding activities varies depend on many factors. From my survey done around Muar District for 134 private nursery operators in Johor in 2011 seems that many factors affect the success of budding and grafting activities. Cost of production of each planting material increase due to this factors. Many factors influence graft success including:

1. Plant 
2. Temperature 
3. Moisture 
4. Growth activity of rootstock 
5. Polarity 
6. Craftsmanship 
7. Pests and diseases 
8. Compatibility 

Some plant species and types of grafts take more easily than others do. According to my lecturer at Universiti Pertanian Malaysia some tree will graft as long as “the rootstock and scion are in the same room”. However, some species are so difficult to graft that they are approach grafted. The scion is grafted to the rootstock while still maintained on its own roots and the roots aren’t severed until the graft union forms which may take months or even years. Gymnosperms tend to be grafted while angiosperms tend to be budded. The temperature is important because callus growth does not occur below 0 Celsius. Above 60 Celsius tissue death occurs. Plants are usually held at 45 to 50 F for several months to promote callus formation without pushing vegetative growth on the scion. Higher temperatures can cause excessive callus growth that can result in depletion of the plant’s carbohydrate reserves. It is important to maintain adequate moisture and high relative humidity around the graft union to prevent uncontrolled water loss and dessication. This is usually achieved by wrapping the union and sealing it with grafting wax or cellophane to prevent moisture loss. 

The growth activity of the rootstock is important as well. Some methods of grafting including T-budding and bark grafting require actively dividing cambium (so the bark will “slip”). In the case of bench grafting, the rootstock is usually grafted just as new roots start to grow in the later winter. Outdoor grafting and budding is usually done in the early spring when the temperatures are favorable and the cambium is active. Plants with strong root pressure may bleed – leading to exudation at the graft union. Polarity is important in grafting and appropriate polarity must be maintained in the scion and rootstock. However, in nurse-grafting, the rootstock may be inserted with reduced polarity in order to stimulate selfrooting. Craftsmanship is critical to the success of the graft. Craftsmanship determines how far apart the cambia are and the amount of space that must be overcome during the healing process. Craftsmanship plays a role not only in initiatial graft union healing but also in how well the plant grows out after grafting. The stress of contamination by viruses, insects or disease organisms can overwhelm the already stressed, grafted plant. Infested materials may result in poor graft take and poor outgrowth of the grafted plants. Likewise, latent infestations may result in the death of a more susceptible rootstock or scion cultivar. I hope this article able to provide significant information to all of you there. Thanks.
M Anem
Senior Agronomist,
Bukit Beruang, Air Keroh,
(28 RabiulAkhir 1433H)

Saturday, November 15, 2014


BEE KEEPING is an activitiy getting more popular di Malaysia especially when government introduce young agropreneur to involve bee rearing in acacia area. Nectar is a glandular secretion of plants, usually collecting at the bases of flowers that bees depend upon for their energy source. Nectar normally contains a low to moderate concentration of sugar, and honeybees dehydrate nectar to produce honey. There are barely measurable amounts of proteins, vitamins and other nutrients in nectar, especially if a little pollen becomes incorporated into it. Bees use nectar in two ways. It can function as a water substitute, used to dilute brood food and air condition the hive. Or it can be "ripened" by the bees to become a stored carbohydrate resource. The sugar syrup that we feed to the bees can be used in either of those ways, also. But, we use different sugar concentrations for different purposes, as will be mentioned shortly. Attentive beekeepers are kept aware of colony conditions through periodic examinations of their colonies. Inspections should be conducted about every ten days during early and late spring.
Early spring inspections relate more to adequate food supplies. Late spring inspections deal more with swarm control. At each inspection the beekeeper should determine whether or not the bees have adequate food to carry them through a dearth period, usually caused by weather conditions that prohibit foraging flights. If the bees have twenty pounds of honey or stored sugar syrup, they will make it to the next inspection in ten days. If they have less stored carbohydrate, they need to be fed. 

In Malaysia the weather are stable all year round. The temperate country always feed a pollen substitute in the spring, if the bees need to be fed sugar syrup. Beekeepers dealing with sugar (sucrose) syrups that they mix themselves will follow these  guidelines. Syrups fed early in the season are used for brood rearing. Feeding sugar usually stimulates egg laying, so early season feedings are done with "light" (1 water : 1 sugar) syrup.  Syrups fed late in the season, to assure adequate winter stores, are not intended to be used as brood food, but are to be stored as ripened syrup. Thus, fall feedings are done with "heavy"  (1 water : 2 sugar) syrup. If fumagillin treatments are going to be used in the fall, feed for weight, first, then top off the colony with medicated syrup. If the medicated syrup is blended with earlier syrup, it will be too dilute to work. Beekeepers who feed high fructose corn syrup to their bees usually do not dilute the syrup, regardless of the season. A fructose solution always contains some level of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that increases over time, especially with heat. HMF is toxic to honeybees at high enough concentrations.

From many observation, syrup is best fed to each colony individually. Each colony receives its full share, regardless of colony size. It is a good idea to start feeding in the evening, after the bees have settled down for the day. Bees interpret a sudden abundance of syrup as an excellent opportunity for robbing, somewhere. By feeding after flying has ceased, the potential robbers find a source right at home. Try not to spill syrup on the hives. It attracts ants and robbing bees. Bulk sugar prices may be more expensive than left over candy or soda pop syrups. Be very cautious when purchasing these bargain carbohydrates. Sugar from broken bags may contain insecticides from floor sweepings. Soda syrups or candies may contain indigestible long chain carbohydrates, like caramel. Soda syrups may be "out of date." If they are fermenting, the bees may be able to salvage some of the remaining sugar, at the cost of getting tipsy. If bacteria have begun working on the alcohol and converted it to acids, the "soured" syrup will be toxic to the
bees and substantial losses can result. This article are based on the research done by scientist from relevant universities.

M Anem
PrivateNatural Bee Farm,
Acacia Rainforest,
Johor, Malaysia.
(Nov 2014)

Monday, November 3, 2014


KELULUT (Heterotrigona spp) or Stingless Bee become popular activities to produce honey and other bee products. i recently visit Min House Camp in Kampong Pulau, Kubang Krian, Kota Bharu, Kelantan to certified how this kelulut rearing activities organised. However, this article are about the stingless bee report at Sarawak based on a report from local newspaper. Along the 50-metre stretch of the riverbank at Kampung Senah Rayang, a number of small boxes are attached to a row of wooden poles. Do you know what are inside the boxes? Bees, yes bees. What’s really special about these bees is they are stingless  and known as Trigona sp or Kelulut in Malaysia. They belong to the family apidae.  During my visit to the kampung for an official function, a swarm of these stingless bees (meliponines) could be seen buzzing inside the boxes and around a gong, hung at the side of the community hall. It was quite an amazing sight. I wasn’t surprised by the bees’ black colour as I had seen this species before. What I didn’t know is they produce not only edible but also nutritious honey. Stingless bee honey is twice as nutritious as ordinary honey, according to Department of Agriculture Expert from PTIF, Putrajaya. The other species of honeybees I know seem to like zipping and buzzing around with a great sense of urgency to accomplish their work, including to sting. As the saying goes, as busy as a bee. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" I would like to share my knowledge to all readers.

The stingless bees don’t whizz around so much, seemingly much more relaxed, and somehow will not make you feel as tense with their lack of sting during an encounter.
They are much smaller about three to five millimetres in size, and have a slimmer body in total variance with the usual yellow and black sting-capable honeybees. Although they do not sting, Trigona can be aggressive too especially for Heterotrigona itama but not the Heterotrigona thoracica especially when threatened. My experience with this species is they attack the soft part of your skin like eyelids, lips, face and neck. They also tangle in your hair even although they don’t sting. They have stingers but these are highly reduced and cannot be used for defence.
Twice as nutritious are the ultimate results from kelulut honey. Until my visit to Min House at Kubang Krian, Kota Bharu, Kelantan (6 km from the city) and to Kampung Senah Rayang in upper Padawan, about 90km from Kuching, I always regarded these stingless bees as worthless social insects. But according to Mr Hisyamudin (Kelulut Project Manager at Min House Camp) and The Kampung headman Roslee Abdullah, Trigona honey is known for its medicinal values. They said the villagers had tried rearing these stingless bees on recommendation by DOA and Mardi. A two-day course on this venture was held at SEKAYU APIARY PARK at Terengganu for Agropreneur Muda Kelulut and local villager in Sarawak in October 2014 with 45 youths and May with 60 participants respectively.

 The organisers said that after the course, the village security and development committee (AJKKK) started a pilot project with eight bee boxes along the riverbank. Some families also tried it with several boxes around their houses. Roslee said the boxes were placed near coconut trees since meliponines are good pollinators of coconuts. “In fact, the bees are farmer-friendly because they pollinate fruit trees and vegetables.” He revealed the villagers had been collecting stingless bee honey from the wild but did not know its nutritional values. “In the past, the honey was collected for consumption only,” he added. A villager Johari Mohd Jeprydin said the stingless bees are not dangerous to children and are fascinating to watch. “Look, there are many of them around the gong and they are not bothered by the kids walking by.” It is believed there are about 15 species of stingless bees. They have a queen, drones and many sterile workers  just like colonies of commercial honeybees. The inside of a tree where the stingless bee queens are extracted. Lure of the queens is to attract armies of sterile workers, the queens which live in hollow trees found in the wild or near the village, had to be brought to the boxes.

The size of a colony in a hollow tree can range from a few dozens to over 100,000. The bees store pollen and honey in large egg-shaped pots made of beeswax, mixed typically with various types of plant resin (sometimes called propolis). These pots are often arranged around a central set of horizontal brood combs where the larval bees are housed. When emerging from their cells, the young worker bees tend to remain inside the hive, performing different jobs. As the workers age, they become guards or foragers. Unlike honeybee larvae, meliponine larvae are not fed directly. The pollen and nectar are placed in a cell, an egg is laid and the cell sealed until the adult bee emerges after pupation. Johari said they were told a hive of stingless bees reared in a box produced about 700 grammes of honey, adding that these bees produced a delicious tangy honey, sweet and sour. “I have tried it before,” he added. He also said a new colony reared in a box normally started producing honey after three months. “But when you rear these bees, make sure there are fruit trees around them because their colonies rely entirely on flower nectar and pollen for food.” Researchers have also discovered stingless bees are important pollinators of many forests and native plants, crops and garden flowers in their search for nectar and pollen.
 The Enemy of diseases for kelulut for centuries honey is known to be the enemy of diseases. Stingless bee honey is called Mother Medicine and there are an increasing number of traditional practitioners and researchers suggesting its use. Many known health benefits of eating stingless bee honey regularly include anti-ageing, enhanced libido and immune system, fighting bacteria and treating bronchial catarrh, sore throat, coughs and colds. Honey is also restorative after an illness and said to sooth pain, act as antiseptic, hasten healing, relieve cough and be effective in curing burns, carbuncle, boils and diabetic wounds. An extensive study on honey by Mohammed Moniruzzaman et. al., published in BioMed Research International Volume 2014, reported that among the various honey varietals taken from the different regions of Malaysia, dark colour honey produced by Trigona from starfruit or carambola trees contains exceptionally high levels of potassium, magnesium, iron and zinc. Stingless bee honey certainly has a lot of nutrients because meliponine is smaller than the normal bee and can suck nectar from flowers to the deepest space. As a result, the honey collected contains many vitamins and minerals, among which is propolis, produced from the bee’s saliva mixed with its food such as pollen, bark, tree shoots and flowers. Propolis is considered beneficial to heatlh because it contains all 16 amino acids, glucose, vitamins A, B, C, D and E, bioflavonoids and minerals. Bioflavanid repairs and improves the systems of the human body and livestock.
 Rear the real thing nowadays, many people are fond of honey and some have even bought fake honey. This is because technology today is so advanced that it can help formulate honey identical to the original product. So rearing your own honey bees is an option to obtain real honey. If you are afraid of being stung, then rear the stingless bees. The Bumiputera Entrepreneurs Development Unit (Bedu) in the Chief Minister’s Department and Mardi are taking steps to promote and commercialise stingless bee honey. Assistant Minister in the Chief Minister’s Department (Entrepreneur Development) Datuk Naroden Majais said in May Malaysia spent RM26.7 million on imported honey in 2008 and this increased to RM40.8 million in 2011 and RM50 million last year. He added that based on last year’s statistics, only 730 entrepreneurs nationwide had ventured into honey production. Naroden noted that stingless bees rearing could become an important cottage industry for the people to earn extra income. With a starting capital of between RM40,000 and RM50,000, he said apiarists (honey farmers) could earn between RM5,000 and RM30,000 a month with between 50 and 1,000 bee colonies. Each colony could produce up to 2kg of honey a month, he said, adding that the honey could fetch RM120 per kg in peninsular Malaysia. Based on Mardi’s research, there are 35 species of stingless bees in the peninsula while more can be found in Sarawak. DOA recently with Mardi is popularising the breeding of stingless bees. Meliponine honey in the form of medicinal honey contains natural antibiotic elements and functions as an anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-toxic agent. It also dilates blood vessels, strengthens the immune system and activates cells. Thanks.

M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Min House Camp Kelulut Farm,
Kubang Krian, Kota Bharu,
(31 October 2014)