Sunday, October 23, 2011

DURIAN INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA

Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr) is a tropical fruit popular in Malaysia as "King of the Fruit". The durian technology in Malaysia developed many years ago and grown as hobby without proper system in traditional orchard. Department of Agriculture Malaysia recorded about about 200 durian clones in Malaysia. The names of the clones mostly identified by locality and origin or names of the founder. Durian in Malaysia selected from popular clones for domestic market and recently for export market. Total area grown with Durian was 110,615 hectare in 2009 producing about 288,900 metric ton. Muar District in Johor has the largest durian area with 7,048 hectare recorded followed by Segamat District in Johor (6,741 hectare) and third largest was Kuala Kerai District in Kelantan (5,365 hectare).


Durian seedling from vegetative planting material using root stock resistant to Canker Disease such as Durio lowainus (Wild durian) as seed. My observation shown that durian tree able to produce fruit between 5-7 years depend on clones and management system. Normally the fruit ripening period between 90-120 days after flowering and fall. The popular durian such as D24 maturity period between 105-115 days, D99 (90-100 days), D123 (90-100 days), D145 (100-115 days), D158 (105-120 days), D159 (105-120 days), D169 (100-110 days), D 188 (100-115 days), D189 (100-110 days) and D190 (106-115 days). Durian has a Rich nutrient content especially Protein (2.7 gm/kg), Carbohydrate (27.9 gm), Calcium (40 mg), Vitamin A (150 mg) and many others.


Durian - Variety D 168
Land preparation for durian is important to burning and preparing contour (if any) and major infrastructures such as main drain, secondary drain, farm roads, ponds and store. Ploughing is important on new area for durian plantation minimum of 35 cm depth. Durian planting distance was 9m x 9m x 9m (123 tree/ha) as Triangle Design. If the Design was Rectangular recommended planting distance was 9 m x 9m (100 tree/ha) or 10 m x 12 m (83 tree/ha). Installation of drip tape of Micro-spray system recommended before planting. Planting hole of 60cm x 60 cm x 60 cm prepared with basic fertilizers application of 5-10 kg organic fertilizer, 500 gm GML and 150-250 gm NPK 15:15:15 per hole.


Writer at Durian Farm at Tangkak
Selected durian seedling planted with mixed clones (minimum 2-3 clones each farm) to ensure better pollination and high quality durian. main clones at least 50-70% of the total tree count. Seedling planted more than 5 cm above ground level and ensure a post to indicate the planting hole. Irrigate new planted seedling everyday except rainy day. Ensure the PE Tubing (piping) was layered at least 20-30 cm underground because it will damage under direct sunlight using 'furrower'. Pest surveillance is a must to check pests and diseases at all stages. Weed control by manual and chemical method. Use Glufosinate ammonium at 132 ml/ 18 liter water sprayed in between rows at least every 2- 3 months.


Manuring program follow Package Technology by DOA with NPK 15:15:15 about 0.5 kg / tree/year, Organic Fertilizer (20 kg/tree at 2 application), GML (0.5 kg/ha). Apply manure at the end of canopy system to ensure maximum absorption of fertilizer. Apply GML to reduce acidity about 0.5 kg /tree/ year accordingly. Pruning is important to cut unwanted shoot or branching system.


Durian collection center at Muar.
Durian has largest pest beginning from early stage of planting up to matured old tree and about 18 was recorded by DOA. Koya (Pseudococcus spp) attack the new shoot and spray with Dimethoate (5.8 ml/4.5 liter water) or Carbaryl (5-10 ml/4.5 liter water). Snail (Achantia fulica) eats young seedling cause death to the seedling controlled by Metahydehyde. The third pest was Scale Insect or Teritip (Coccus spp) and controlled with insecticide called Domethoate or Deltamethrin. Lintah Bulan (Limax spp) attack young seedling and controlled by Meta 5G. Thrips (Thrips spp) attack the leaves cause crinkle and use chemical spray of Amitraz or Dicofor or Propagite or Sulfer tp control. Hamama (Teranhyus spp) attack durian leaves controlled with chemical as Thrips.


The seventh pest was Cockchafer (Kumbang Makan Daun) or Apogonia spp which eat durian leaves controlled with Fenthion. Lavana Moth attack leaves and controlled by Dimethoate chemicals. White Fly (Aleurodicus disperses) attack leaves by sucking and controlled by Lefenuron/ Cyromaizine / Prefenos. Scale insect  (Asrerolancium lecanium) also attack durian leaves and control by chemical. Skin Stem Borer (Synanthedon spp) attack durian stems from early stage controlled by Dimethoate. Nematode (Meloidogyne incognite) attack durian root and very important to early control by Carbofuran or Fenamiphos.


The 13th pest was Belalang Kunyit (Vollangga nigriconis) that eat young leaves and control by insecticide. Termites (Microfermes pallidus) damage durian rooting system and controlled with Chlorpyrifos at 4.5 liter poured in 1 meter square attacked area. Durian Stem Borer (Bactocera gultata) and (Zeuzera coffeane) attack durian stem and controlled through trunk injection with Dimethoate or Fenthion. Fruit Borer has 3 species for durian that is Mudaria magniplaga, Cognogetes puntiferralis and Tonica spp cause damage to durian flesh and controlled with Lambda cyhalothrin or Fenthion or Deltamethrin. Kumbang Pengorek Batang (Playtypus spp) attack durian trunk and controlled by chemicals such as Dimethoate. The last listed pest for durian was Squirrel or Tupai that eat ripe fruit and use trap of shoot them!


Durian also has 7 serious disease in the long list. Top of the list was Root Rot (Phytium spp) and cause mortality to the tree and control with Methalaxyl. Damping Off the durian seedling caused by Phythopthora parasitica controlled by 3 types of chemicals namely Methalaxyl, Dimethomorph and Fosetyl aluminium. Hawar Daun (Rhizoctonia sonali) is the third durian disease in the list controlled by 3 type of chemicals. Antracnose (Collectotricum gloesporoides) attack durian leaves and controlled with mancozeb or Thiophanate methyl at recommended dosage. Alga Leaf Spot (Cephaleuros virescens) attack leaves and control with chemicals. Stem/Fruit Canker (Phythopthora palmivora) is the most scary durian disease among all. It attack the durian stem and able to kill durian tree controlled with Metalaxyl direct to the attacked area by removing the skin before chemical application. The last durian disease called "Cendawan Angin" caused by Corticum salmonicolor and controlled with Tridemorph or copper based chemicals.


As you read above article on pest and disease control there was so many chemical used to make sure we can eat nice durian fruit. Seems that durian has so many enemies interested in his development career. Why durian has so many enemies? May be he was "King of The Fruit". The king has to survive even though the enemies attacked from early seedling stage till matured stage. So if you wants to buy durian... make sure there is Organic Certified or there is some pests attack that means less chemical has been used by farmers. Is that true...


DURIAN CLONES....SELECT THE BESTS...
BUY DURIAN... TRADITIONAL TREE ARE SAFE...
CLONAL DURIAN... TREMENDOUS TASTE...
DURIAN INDUSTRY.... GOING TO SUNSETS...
YOUNG GENERATION... DON'T LIKE DURIAN...
THINK, THINK... WHAT HAPPEN TO THE KING...


By
M Anem
Jalan Kamariah
Muar, Johore,
Malaysia
(11 October 2011)

1 comment:

  1. assalammualaikum... encik.. if you dont mind..boleh saya dapatkan source matlumat ni tak? untuk di jadikan rujukan... sangat berguna untuk saya.. terima kasih... dan... saya nak minta pendapat encik.. andai kita jadikan kulit durian sebagai salah satu bahan untuk di recycle.. senang tak untuk dpatkan sumbernye?

    ReplyDelete