Malaysia produces many types of tropical fruits for domestic and export. About 269,860 hectare of fruit crop was grown in 2009 with annual production about 1.642 million metric ton respectively. Durian (Durio zibethinus) are the largest growing fruit in Malaysia with about 100,615 hectare in 2009 followed by Banana (Musa spp) with about 28,640 hectare with annual production of 283,220 metric ton. Department of Agriculture Malaysia recorded that Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) was third largest fruit grown in this country with an area of 24,470 hectare produce about 79,540 metric ton and the fourth popular fruit was Pineapple (Ananas comosus) with an area of 16,210 hectare and produce about 400,070 metric ton in 2009.
Production for domestic demand from commercial and traditional farms whereby for export normally by medium or large scale by private sectors. Few selected Malaysian fruit for export traditionally are Star Fruit, Papaya, Water Melon Pineapple and Banana. There are about 30 types of fruit grown either commercial of small scale or as mixed crop. This article explains of few popular fruit clones in Malaysia grown by farmers based on my experience in Agriculture Extension Officer for more than 25 years. Most of the clones and cultivar for fruits in Malaysia are prepared for fresh production and almost non of the clones for raw material for processing activity.
1) Star Fruit
Star Fruit or Belimbing (Averrhoa carambola) was among popular fruit in Malaysia for domestic and export. There are 3 clones of star fruit and popular identified as Clone B10, Clone B17 and Clone B2. Clone B10 and Clone B17 is popular for star fruit production. Clone B2 was grown between the two clones as pollen provider in fertilization process for better fruit set. There was about 1,340 hectare of star fruit grown in Malaysia in 2009 and produce about 11,370 metric ton. Few area identified as star fruit growing area in Malaysia are Gombak District in Selangor (132 ha) followed by Seremban District of Negeri Sembilan (79 ha) and Temerloh District of Pahang (68 ha). The star fruit farm normally sized about 1-5 hectare per farmers due to huge labor requirement for fruit wrapping activity.
(My Blog on Star Fruit Technology published on 4 April 2010).
Papaya or Betik Eksotika (Carica papaya) is few popular papaya grown in Malaysia with two clones that was Papaya Eksotika 1 and papaya Eksotika 2. Most of Eksotika papaya was produce for domestic use as fresh fruit. The most recent popular papaya clones in Malaysia are Betik Sekaki. Betik Sekaki (also called as Betik Hongkong) was the largest papaya variety grown in Malaysia about 65-70% from total area. Papaya was grown about 2,985 hectare with annual production of 47,630 metric ton in 2009. Betik Sekaki is able produce higher yield per hectare, early harvesting period and suitable for export to Hong Kong and Singapore. Main production papaya area in Malaysia was in Rompin District Pahang (688 ha), Padang Terap District in Kedah (296 ha) and Muar District in Johor (182 ha) in 2009.
(Blog technology of Papaya was published 18 April 2010).
Cempedak (Artocarpus chempeden) is a type of local fruit grown for fresh consumption in Malaysia. The most popular clone grown in Malaysia was Clone CH30, Clone CH 28 and Clone CH33. There was about 11,050 hectare of Chempedak grown in Malaysia and produce 53,010 metric ton in 2009. There is other few local chempedak clones named after the name of local origin. Chempedak production area in Malaysia located at Kuching Ditrict of Sarawak (366 ha) followed by Selama District of Perak (250 ha) and Sipitang District of Sabah (245 ha). There was a popular “Chempedak Goreng” or fried chempedak rather for fresh consumption.
(Blog Technology on cempedak published on 3 June 2010 and 22 January 2010).
Ciku (Manikara sapota) was a type of fruit originated from Malaysia and South East Asia. There was 5 popular ciku clones in Malaysia namely Ciku Mega (CM19), Ciku Betawi (C61), Ciku Jantung (C62), Ciku Subang (C63) and Ciku Kaseroi (Not registered). Total area of ciku grown in Malaysia was 1,030 hectare with annual production of 5,790 metric ton in 2009. Ciku was slow growth type of tree and long life.
(My blog on Ciku was published on June 2010).
Durian (Durio zibethinus) was called as "King of The Fruit " in Malaysia. Durian crop in either mono-crops or mixed with other fruit trees. There are about 100,615 hectare of durian tree grown in Malaysia with annual production of 288,900 mt in 2009. Main production area of durian in Malaysia was Muar District of Johor (7,048 ha) followed by Segamat District Johor (6,741 ha) and Kuala Krai District of Kelantan (5,365 ha). Among popular clones grown in this country was D24 (Bukit Merah), D99 (Koop Kecil), D158 (Tangkai Panjang), D159 (Bantal Mas), D168/101 (Mas Muar) dan D197 (Kunyit). Other local clones was planted according to its locality and not registered to DOA.
Coconut or Kelapa (Cocos nucifera) has many clones identified in Malaysia. Among popular coconut clones was Malaysian Tall, MATAG, Malaysian Dwarf Red (MRD), Malaysian Green Dwarf (MGD),Malaysian Yellow Dwarf (MYD – As Photo ), Pandan Wangi, MAWA , African Tall, Rennel, MARREN , MAMA and others. However recently only MATAG, MAWA and Fragrant Pandan was widely accepted as the most popular clones. A total of 109,185 hectare coconut was planted in 2009 with an annual production of 571,400 metric ton. Sarawak has the largest coconut growing area of 22,290 hectare followed by Johor (21,250 ha) and Sabah (19,140 ha). Most of the coconut consumed for fresh and some are the coconut was processed for copra, coconut milk and others.
(My Blog on coconut growing published on 28 April 2010)
7) Jambu Air
For Jambu Air (Euginia aquea) it was grown as commercial farm with 2 popular clones. The clones was Clone E3 (Jambu Air Madu Merah – Next photo ) and Clone E2 (Jambu Air Madu Hijau). The writer estimated about 50-70 hectare. Main production area of Jambu Air was in Johor, Perak, Selangor and Pahang. Johor claim that the green Clone also called "Jambu Air Johor" due to it popularity in the state.
( My Blog Jambu AIr Technology published by Febuary 2010)
8) Jambu Batu (Guava)
Guava or Jambu Batu (Psidium guava) was grown in Malaysia for domestic and export market. For Guava it was grown mostly as commercial farm as monocrop. There are 2 main type of guava in Malaysia that was SEEDLESS GUAVA and SEED GUAVA. The seedless guava popular clone was Clone GU15. The guava with seed was Clone GU8, Clone GU9 and Clone GU 10. Guava grown in Malaysia about 1,440 hectare in 2009 with annual production of 18,880 mt. Main production guava was located in Muar Johor (213 ha) , Daerah Batang Padang Perak (185 ha) and Daerah Segamat Johor (68 ha). Main constraint of growing guava in Malaysia was the attack of nematode, fruit fly and workers.
(My blog on guava published at February 2010.)
Longan fruit (Dimocarpus longan) has 4 basic clones that was Edaw, Chompoo, Biew Khiew and Klon Diamond/Belian. Ony two clones was popular in Malaysia Clone Edaw and Clone Belian. Longan in Malaysia was a new comodity introduced to Malaysia recently. Malaysia import fresh longan fruit from Thailand totaling of 7,650 metric ton which valued at RM 12.4 million in 2008. About 60 - 80 hectare longan was planted in Malaysia at Johor, Melaka, Selangor, Kedah, Perak and Negeri Sembilan.
(My Blog on LonganTechnology published by 20 April 2010)
Limau bali or Pomelo (Citrus grandis) was grown in Malaysia about 1,895 hectare with annual production of 8,830 mt in 2009. Pomelo grown mostly in Segamat Johor (313 ha - at Jementah) followed by Daerah Kuala Kangsar Perak (200 ha) and Daerah Kinta Perak (110 ha). The most popular pomelo clone was Clone PO51 (White flesh - Rompin), Clone PO 52 (Red FleshTambun) and Clone PO 53 (White flesh -Melomas).
(My Blog on Pomelo Technology published on 11 Febuary 2010)
11) Limau Manis
For Sweet Citrus or locally known as Limau Langkat (Citrus suhuensis) there is not many clone available , only Clone M32. There was also local unknown clone and not registered to DOA. Total limau langkat planted area in Malaysia reported only 3,940 hectare with annual production of 17,970 metric ton in 2009. lone M33 was grown at Daerah Asajaya in Sarawak about 294 hectare followed by Daerah Simunjan Sarawak (288 ha) and Daerah Beaufort Saabah (230 ha).
12) Manggis (Mangoesteen)
Mangoesteen or locally known as Manggis (Garcinia mangostana) was grown as traditional crop mixed with other fruit tree. There was no specific popular clones for mangoesteen in Malaysia. Most mangoesteen was not registered with DOA. About 7,685 hectare og mangoesteen was grown with estimated production of 29,520 metric ton in 2009. Most mangoesteen was grown in Daerah Batang Padang Perak (340 ha) followed by Daerah Hulu Langat Selangor (300 ha) and Daerah Segamat Johor (288ha).
(My Blog mangoesteen teknology published by 9 June 2010)
13) Manggo (Mangga)
Manggo or Mangga in Malays (Magnifera indica) has wide range of clones in Malaysia. Among popular clones however identified as Clone MA224 (Chok Anan) widely grown in Melaka, Sarawak and few other states. Total manggo planted area was about 9,375 hectare with annual production of 24,510 metric ton. Manggo ,mostly planted in Jasin Melaka (463 ha) followed by Daerah Alor Gajah Melaka (419 ha) and Daerah Kuching Sarawak (271 ha). Other popular clones was Clone MA 128 (Harum Manis), MA 162 (Foo Fatt / Golek), MA 165 (MAHA), MA 204 (Melele) and MA 223 (Nam Dok Mai).
14) Pineapple (Nenas)
Pineapple or Nenas (Ananas cosmosus) was grown for fresh and canning for eksport. The most popular pineapple in Malaysia was Nenas Morris and Nenas Gandul (N36). Other less popular clones was Nenas Cayene, Nenas Spanish, Nenas Queen and nenas MD2. about 16,850 hectare pineawas grown in 2009 with pproduce about 416,070 metric ton. Johor has single largest pineapple planting area with Daerah Pontian (3,686 ha), Daerah Kluang (2,950 ha) and Daerah Muar (1,266 ha) with commercial scale and smallholders.
(My Blog Jackfruit Technology published on 22 January 2010)
16) Banana (Pisang)
Banana or Pisang (Musa spp) grown in Malaysia for fresh cosumption and export to nearby country. About 29,790 hectare of banana was planted in Malaysia by 2009 producing 295,630 metric ton. The popular banana clone or variety was about 10include Pisang Mas, Pisang Rastali, Pisang Cavendish and Pisang Berangan. Banana largely planted at Daerah Batu Pahat Johor (1,660 ha), Daerah Pontian Johor (1,653 ha) and daerah Muar Johor (1,532 ha).
(My Blog on banana tehnology published by 2 Mac 2010)
17) Pitaya (Buah Mata Naga)
Buah Mata Naga or Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) only planted commercially in Malaysia less than 10 years ago. Two popular clone was Red Variety and White Variety. Malaysia grow about 2,510 hectare in 2009 produce about 9,790 metric ton. Pitaya industry facing disease problem caused by Ervinia spp cause lost to new farmers. Pitaya planted mostly in Daerah Kluang Johor (206 ha), Daerah Mersing Johor (156 ha) and daerah Jelebu N Sembilan (155 ha).
Pulasan (Nephelium mutabile) recorded hectarage of 1,410 hectare in 2009 which produce 4,930 metric ton. The most popular clone for pulasan was Clone Ah Hock (Hock 94). Other less popular clone was Clone P28 (Pulasan Temerloh). Pulasan widely grown in Daerah Hulu Langat Selangor ( 314 ha), Daerah Dungun Terengganu (242 ha) and Daerah Muar Johor (146 ha).
Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) was second or third largest fruit tree in Malaysia. Total rambutan tree grown in 2009 was 25,460 hectare with annual production of 82,740 ton metric. Among district growing large scale of rambutan was Daerah Selama Perak (846 ha), Daerah Kuala Krai Kelantan (654 ha) and Daerah Dungun Terengganu (473 ha). The most popular rambutan clone was R134 (Rambutan Singapore), R 156 (Gading Muar), R 179 (Deli Cheng), R 191 (Anak Sekolah ) dan Klon R 193 (Deli Baling).
(My Blog on rambutan technology published by 31 January 2010)
Salak (Salacca glabrecens) was grown in Malaysia for 1,190 hectare in 2009 with estimated production about 4,550 metric ton. Salak mostly grown in Daerah Kuala Krai Kelantan (329 ha), Daerah Dungun Terengganu (256 ha) and Daerah Tumpat Kelantan (233 ha). People claim most popular clone for Salak was Clone SJ15, Clone SJ 17, Clone SJ 34, Clone SJ 36, Clone SJ 39, Clone SJ 40 and the latest was Salak Pondoh (Indonesia).
(My Blog on Salak tecnology published by 19 April 2010).
21) Watermelon (Tembikai)
Watermelon or Tembikai (Citrullus lunatus) grown in Malaysia about 11,750 hectare in 2009 for domestic and export market. The largest production area for watermelon was located at Daerah Rompin Pahang (2,543 ha), Daerah Kluang Johor (1,119 ha) and Daerah Mersing Johor (828 ha). Among popular variety was Hibrid such as New Dragon, Emperor, Flower Dragon, Hitam Manis (S108), Black Gold categorised as watermelon with seed. The popular seedless variety was Fengshan No 1, Ming Hwa, Gold Rush 1663, Felicity Orchid Sweet, Sin Foon, Quality, seedless No 1 and Seedless Superstar.
(My Blog on watermelon technology published at 27 April 2010)
22) Soursop (Durian Belanda)
Soursop or Durian Belanda (Annona muricata) are popular fruit for domestic and consumed as fresh. There was no data on acreage of soursop planted in Malaysia.
Dokong (Lansium domesticum Jack) was grown about 16,130 hectare CHE in 2009 which produce 32,420 metric ton. Main production area for dokong located at Daerah Gua Musang Kelantan (2,040 ha) followed by Daerah Kuala Krai Kelantan (1,950 ha) and Daerah Jeli Kelantan (1,748 ha). There was no specific names registered for dokong but two types was Clone Dokong Kering (Dry ) and Wet Dokong or Dokong Biji.
Popular fruit clone grown in Malaysia depend on many factor such as demand and supply, fruit quality, post harvest technology, soil suitability, planting materian, seasonal or non-seasonal fruit, minimum processing , infrastructure and incentives. Commercial fruit growers mantain their crop due to lal tropical fruit ar for fresh cosumption and not many or almost nill clone for processsing as raw material. Orchard rehabilitation program bya Agriculture Department is one way to improve traditional clove with new productive and marketable clone.
FRUIT CLONE....WHICH ONE WAS POPULAR....