Monday, April 3, 2023


is is very important sector in the world to supply food for inhabitants, Agriculture the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics. Cotton, wool, palm oil, fish, meat and many others are all agricultural products. Agriculture also provides wood for construction and paper products also produce more food chain and industrial product. These products, as well as the agricultural methods used, may vary from one part of the world to another. For me the start of agriculture over centuries with the growth of agriculture contributed to the rise of civilizations. This blog in "Anim Agriculture Technology'' we share about the agriculture and their important.

Before agriculture became widespread, people spent most of their lives searching for food hunting wild animals and then gathering wild plants. History about 11,500 years ago in which later people gradually learned how to grow cereal and root crops, and settled down to a life based on farming. By 2,000 years ago as much of the Earth’s population had become dependent on agriculture. Scholars are not sure why this shift to farming took place, but it may have occurred because of climate change. When people began growing crops, they also began herding and breeding wild animals. Adapting wild plants and animals for people to use is called domestication. The first domesticated plant was probably rice or corn. Chinese farmers were cultivating rice as early as 7500 BCE. Recorded that the first domesticated animals were dogs, which were used for hunting. Sheep and goats were probably domesticated next. People also domesticated cattle and pigs. Most of these animals had once been hunted for hides and meat. Now many of them are also sources of milk, cheese, and butter. However eventually, people used domesticated animals such as oxen for plowing, pulling, and transportation. Agriculture enabled people to produce surplus food. They could use this extra food when crops failed or trade it for other goods. Food surpluses allowed people to work at other tasks unrelated to farming. Agriculture kept formerly nomadic people near their fields and led to the development of permanent villages. These became linked through trade. New economies were so successful in some areas that cities grew and civilizations developed. The earliest civilizations based on intensive agriculture arose near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia (now Iraq and Iran) and along the Nile River in Egypt. For thousands of years, agricultural development was very slow. One of the earliest agricultural tools was fire. Native Americans used fire to control the growth of berry-producing plants, which they knew grew quickly after a wildfire. Farmers cultivated small plots of land by hand, using axes to clear away trees and digging sticks to break up and till the soil. Over time, improved farming tools of bone, stone, bronze, and iron were developed. New methods of storage evolved. People began stockpiling foods in jars and clay-lined pits for use in times of scarcity. They also began making clay pots and other vessels for carrying and cooking food. 

Around 5,500 BCE most farmers in Mesopotamia developed simple irrigation systems. By channeling water from streams onto their fields, farmers were able to settle in areas once thought to be unsuited to agriculture. In Mesopotamia, and later in Egypt and China, people organized themselves and worked together to build and maintain better irrigation systems. Early farmers also developed improved varieties of plants. For example, around 6000 BCE, a new variety of wheat arose in South Asia and Egypt. It was stronger than previous cereal grains; its hulls were easier to remove and it could be made into bread. As the Romans expanded their empire, they adapted the best agricultural methods of the people they conquered. They wrote manuals about the farming techniques they observed in Africa and Asia, and adapted them to land in Europe. The Chinese also adapted farming tools and methods from nearby empires. A variety of rice from Vietnam ripened quickly and allowed farmers to harvest several crops during a single growing season. This rice quickly became popular throughout China.  Many medieval European farmers used an open-field system of planting. One field would be planted in spring, another in autumn, and one would be left unplanted, or fallow. This system preserved nutrients in the soil, increasing crop production. The leaders of the Islamic Golden Age (which reached its height around 1000) in North Africa and the Middle East made agriculture into a science. Islamic Golden Age farmers learned crop rotation. In the 15th and 16th centuries, explorers introduced new varieties of plants and agricultural products into Europe. From Asia, they carried home coffee, tea, and indigo, a plant used to make blue dye. From the Americas, they took plants such as potatoes, tomatoes, corn (maize), beans, peanuts, and tobacco. Some of these became staples and expanded people’s diets. To be continue in Part 2 of this agriculture series. Thanks...

M Anim,
Precint 11, Putrajaya,
(January 2021).
Updated in April 2023.

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