Saturday, December 4, 2021

HARVESTING KELULUT BEE HONEY

KELULUT
or stingless bee honey (Trigona spp) has been gaining popularity ever since it was recognised as a superfood by the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) in 2016 due to its high nutrient and the antioxidant content. However, experts caution that harvesting of the honey whether in the wild or in farms and must be carried out in a sustainable manner to maintain bee populations. This is because bees are vital to the ecosystem as they act as plant pollinators, indirectly resulting in improved plant pollination and increased crop production by up to 40 percent.  Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) senior lecturer in neuroscience Dr Mohd Zulkifli Mustafa, who has also carried out substantial research on kelulut bees, said the number of wild bee colonies in Malaysia and other countries has been steadily declining, threatened by habitat loss brought about by logging activities, the expansion of residential developments into virgin forests and use of pesticides on farms. He said feral colony hunting or log hunting activities to acquire stingless bee colonies should also be stopped. In this blog this morning  "Anim Agriculture Technology" I will discuss the local The Sunday Daliy report about the story of weeding out of kelulut harvesting practices for all viewers.

The article stated when bee hunters cut down whole trees in the forest to get hold of bee colonies, the plant pollinations will be affected, thus flora and fauna get destroyed too. He who was a veterinary surgeon by qualification with a PhD in neuroscience whose research interests revolve around molecular neuroscience and bee cognition as well as social innovation in the stingless beekeeping industry.  He said in the case of wild kelulut bee nests as the bee hunters would usually cut down the trees in order to obtain the bee colony brood and the queen bee.  Instead of cutting down the tree, it’s best that they practice the eduction technique and (place the brood) into a standard man-made hive. Swarm traps can also be applied (for the bees to move into). If they (hunters) can get the queen bee as well and place the (man-made) hive at the initial location, the rest of the bees (in the colony) will also move to the hive within a few hours that this was a much more sustainable way to acquire the kelulut bees and their honey. USM has now embarked on queen bee breeding to expedite colony reproduction to fulfill the demand for kelulut honey.

As compared to the tualang stinger bees (Apis dorsata) in which mainly nest in the jungle and far off the ground, the kelulut bees build their nests in already existing cavities or hollowed-out areas of trees, buildings and hives. This nesting behaviour provides the opportunity for these stingless bees to be cultivated in intensive farms with controlled aspect environmental conditions or in homes in rural areas with standard operating procedures in place. The empowerment of today’s stingless bee industry would have a direct impact on the production of high-quality honey, while also sustaining pollination of crops and other plants to maintain biodiversity. In Malaysia there are more than 50,000 commercially farmed beehives of which 6,000 are stingless beehives with the largest ones located in throughout states especially in Terengganu, Johor, Pahang, Sarawak and Kelantan. The stingless bee honey has had a long history of traditional indigenous use with a range of purported therapeutic properties including its antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. Bees also act as plant pollinators, indirectly resulting in improved plant pollination and increased crop production by up to 40 percent, thus potentially providing additional income to beekeepers and all of their neighbourhoods while increasing national agriculture produce. Beekeeping should be regarded as a prime tool to achieve sustainable development.

According to Malaysian Nature Society (MNS) president Prof Dr Ahmad Ismail said there should be more awareness on bee conservation, especially among farmers and villagers living near oil palm and rubber plantations who should be discouraged from using pesticides or carrying out fogging activities, as well as destroying wild bee nests. MNS signed a memorandum of understanding with Corak Rentak Sdn Bhd last month to support the conservation of the stingless bee. Corak Rentak managing director YAM Dato’ Seri Di Raja Sharifah that the one-year collaborative partnership aims to spread awareness of the importance of the bees through MNS’ membership base. They will be sponsoring the MNS membership fee for one year for purchasers of DEIRA (Kelulut) Stingless Bee Honey through Shopee and Lazada during a campaign, which will run for a month. At the same time, commercial farming of kelulut bees can also help to increase the incomes of the B40 community through sustainable beekeeping practices that protect the existing environment. As part of its Corporate Social Responsibility programme, the company will be developing the Bee Engagement Entrepreneurship (BEE) project whereby “seed money donated by family and friends are used to start bee farming communities for the B40s/Asnaf (hardcore poor), starting first in Kelantan state. Their collaboration with Corak Rentak, MNS hopes to recruit between 3,000 and 5,000 new members.  

Nowadays more than 35 stingless bee species have been identified in Malaysia but only two species are commercially cultivated to harvest the honey. Unlike honey bees the stingless bees are generally harmless to humans and domesticated animals, and are great pollinators too. Besides they are also more resistant to the diseases and parasites that affect honey bees (that can sting).  Stingless bees are smaller in size, about seven millimetres to 10 mm long, and also have a shorter flight range of 500 metres and making it easier to keep them among crops for pollination. In comparison the stinger honey bees are 12 mm to 25 mm long and have a flight range of two kilometres. The Stingless bees can produce an average of three kilogrammes of honey per colony each year, with its harvest time being between March and September. Malaysia’s tropical climate results in honey with high moisture content, which causes fermentation. This produces a sour taste and foamy texture which depreciates the value of Malaysian quality honey internationally. The study conducted by USM showed that kelulut honey improved spatial working memory after one tablespoon of the honey was consumed per day over a seven-day period. Researchers in Universiti Putra Malaysia and the University of Queensland, Australia, also found that up to 84 percent of the Kelulut honey's sugar comprised trehalulose, which is a rare sugar with a low glycaemic index (GI). However traditionally it has been thought that stingless bee honey was good for diabetes and now we know why and having a lower GI means it takes longer for the sugar to be absorbed into the bloodstream, so there is no spike in glucose that you get from other sugars. People have patented ways of making trehalulose synthetically but it costs much higher than the natural honey. Current research shows that stingless bee honey can be used as a whole food on its own or in other food to get the same health benefits. Thanks...

By,
M Anem,
Senior Agronomist,
Putrajaya,
Malaysia.
(June 2021).

Friday, November 26, 2021

WHERE PADDY INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA GO?


MALAYSIA
 has been importing about 30%-40% of its rice consumption annually for the last 30 years. And according to some studies, the country will likely continue to be a net rice importer in the years to come. The question is either does Malaysia’s inability to achieve 100% self-sufficiency level (SSL) in rice production by 2020 (as targeted just five years ago by the then BN-led government) signify a failure for the heavily subsidised industry?. According to a report by the Khazanah Research Institute (KRI), it does not. Statistical trends, geography and consumer preferences for premium rice means that Malaysia is likely to continue being a net importer,” the think tank explains. Considering this, the nation may be in a better position not to target 100% SSL, but with domestic rice produced sustainably, responsibly, safely and where farmers earn a sustainable income as the report adds. The blog in "Anim Agriculture Technology" regarding w
here does Malaysia’s paddy and rice industry stand. In its recently published “The Status of the Paddy and Rice Industry in Malaysia” report, KRI finds that despite the significant public resources allocated to the industry, paddy farming is still perceived to be uneconomical. In addition, paddy farmers are still associated with poverty; and Malaysia is still a net importer of rice with SSL hovering around 60% - 70%. Where does Malaysia’s paddy and rice industry stand actually it states that it is high time for the country to review its agricultural strategies and as the country has the potential to cultivate paddy responsibly, productively and still achieve better income for the farmers. While it is unrealistic to expect Malaysia to be a net exporter of rice as KRI notes, it is sensible for the country to aim at achieving a balance of being a net importer, but with local farmers producing high quality grains and adhering to good agricultural practices. Report from The Star.
Thanks.

By,
M Anim,
Putrajaya,
Maaysia.Posted from, Guest House,
Felda Chuping Agro Valley Bhd (FCAV),
Chuping, Perlis,
Malaysia
(November 2021).

Saturday, November 20, 2021

ARE COCONUT PRODUCT LOW FODMAP?

According to Monash University, desiccated coconut is low FODMAP in 1/2 cup serves, however large serves of 3/4 cup contain moderate to high levels of polyols. This means if you are in the first stage of the low FODMAP diet, limit yourself to a 1/2 cup serve or less of desiccated coconut in any one sitting. FODMAP stands for fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols, which are short-chain carbohydrates (sugars) that the small intestine absorbs poorly. Some people experience digestive distress after eating them. Symptoms include: Cramping. Diarrhea. Food is a common trigger of digestive issues. In particular, foods that are high in fermentable carbs can cause symptoms like gas, bloating and stomach pain. A group of these carbs is known as FODMAPs, and foods can be classified as either high or low in these carbs. Restricting high-FODMAP foods can provide remarkable relief of gut symptoms, particularly in people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). What Does High-FODMAP Actually Mean?. FODMAP stands for Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols. These are the scientific names for carbs that may cause digestive issues. A food is categorized as high-FODMAP according to predefined cut-off levels. Published cut-off levels suggest that a high-FODMAP food contains more than one of the following carbs, known as  Oligosaccharides: 0.3 grams of either fructans or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), Disaccharides: 4.0 grams of lactose, Monosaccharides: 0.2 grams more fructose than glucose, Polyols: 0.3 grams of either mannitol or sorbitol. It’s also important to be aware that not everyone should avoid FODMAPs. In fact, FODMAPs are beneficial for most people. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" blog will discussed about the report regarding the study on are coconut product low in FODMAP and good for health.


Coconuts have long been the mainstay of the diets of people who live in tropical areas and now they have become a hot new food craze. This is due to the purported health benefits given to coconut in its many forms. People are now eating more coconut itself, as well as stocking their kitchens with coconut oil, milk, and water. If you have IBS, you may be wary of foods that are a little more exotic than the foods you grew up with. Take a look at which coconut products might be beneficial to add to your IBS diet, and which products you should probably avoid. One measure of whether a food is friendly or not for an IBS diet is whether it is high or low in FODMAPs, which are fermentable sugars and alcohols. Coconut products vary in this. A diet low in FODMAPs is considered by some to be a strategy for reducing IBS symptoms. Dried, shredded coconut is often added to baked goods, candies, and other sweet treats to give them the unique flavor of coconut. People seem to either love the taste of coconut or hate it. If you are a coconut lover, read on to see if it is okay to be enjoying shredded coconut on a regular basis. For health benefits, shredded coconut is considered to be a good source of the following nutrients. The dietary fiber contain high Phosphorus and Potassium. The uses of shredded coconut can be enjoyed in many ways. Just be sure to buy the unsweetened variety so as to avoid consuming excessive amounts of sugar and add to smoothies, sprinkle on fruits or vegetables or used in baking. For the effect on IBS as the the researchers at Monash University in Australia have done research on the amounts of FODMAPs in the various coconut products. Here is what they found regarding dried, shredded coconut therefore 1/4 cup serving is considered low in FODMAPs, 1/2 cup serving is high in polyols, one of the types of FODMAPs. This means that you should be able to enjoy eating shredded coconut in lower amounts without worrying that it will worsen your IBS symptoms. If you are not sensitive to polyols, you may not have to worry about portion size at all. At lower amounts, shredded coconut appears to offer the benefit of IBS-friendly dietary fiber without the worry of IBS-unfriendly FODMAPs. If you are a coconut fan, feel free to sprinkle away!.
Thanks.
By,
M Anim,
Melaka City,
Melaka,
Malaysia.
(December 2020).

Tuesday, November 16, 2021

CRUDE PALM OIL REACHED RM4,000 ON SEPT 2021


THE CRUDE PAL OIL (CPO)
in Malaysia prices are expected to be stable at above RM4,000 per tonne for the third quarter of 2021 (reported by 9 September 2021) before weakening in the fourth quarter due to the expected recovery in production.  According to Malaysian Palm Oil Board director general Dr Ahmad Parveez Ghulam Kadir, improvements in production and exports are expected to sustain in the following year, supported by positive developments in the COVID-19 situation, better prospects for global oils and fats, as well as favourable trade policies in competing and importing countries. Meanwhile, palm oil prices in 2021 are expected to average at RM4,000 per tonne, an increase of 49 per cent compared to RM2,685 per tonne in 2020, due to expected lower CPO production as said during the World Palm Virtual Expo and Conference 2021 today. As for the CPO production for 2021, he said the local production was forecast to be around 18 million tonne, lower than in 2020, which was partly caused by limited labour supply arising from the national border closure and less availability of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" report the good news from MPOB.

The production growth for the second half of 2021 (2H2021) is expected to be lower than 2H2020 due to expected lower FFB production and slight decrease in matured area. On palm oil stocks, he said the local closing stocks for this year were expected to increase to 1.7 million tonnes compared to 1.27 million tonnes in December 2020, mainly attributed to the expected higher CPO production in November and December 2021 compared to the previous year. Nevertheless, the stocks are expected to remain tight in view of low vegetable oils stocks in major importing countries which encourages palm oil demand. On exports, MPOB  said total exports in 2021 would likely decline by 6.3 per cent year-on-year to 16.3 million tonnes due to tight supply availability and decline in production although palm oil demand was expected to be stronger this year. However, MPOB noted that palm oil export to India surged by more than twofold in the period from January to July in this year 2021 to 1.8 million tonnes from 0.85 million tonnes a year earlier, partly attributed to higher Indonesian export tariff of palm oil. In regards to the European Union, export declined by 18.1 per cent to 0.97 million tonnes due to the implementation of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) for biodiesel usage,” he explained. MPOB  said the border closure, which limits the mobility of people across borders, had worsened the labour shortage issue in the palm oil sector, which saw total labour shrinking by 6.6 per cent between April 2020 and June 2021. The shortage of labour has caused FFB production during the period to reduce by 3.8 per cent. News source- Bernama. Thanks.

By,
M Anem,
Putrajaya,
Malaysia.
(October 2021). 

Saturday, October 30, 2021

LOCAL FRUITS - TASTY HEALTH BOOSTER (Pt 4)

 
THE LOCAL FRUIT is delicious and packed with nutrients. There are more tha 9 fruit species identified as commercial fruits for domestic and export potential. When it comes to fruit, many Malaysians tend to believe that the imports fruits are more nutritious than local ones. Even when fruits are sometimes and recommended to be included in our diet, more often than not, only imported ones are named. Due to this as reported that many consumers prefer apples, grapes or oranges compared to watermelons, starfruits or mangosteens. According to Pantai Hospital Kuala Lumpur dietitian kown as  Pang Kang Ru says imported fruits may be more expensive but this does not mean they are any healthier. She said each type, whether local or imported has its unique nutritional value. For example, the rambutan has a higher content of vitamin C (38mg vitamin C/100g) compared to the blueberry (9.7mg vitamin C/100g). However, in terms of dietary fibre content, rambutan has only 0.3g of dietary fibre/100g while blueberries have 2.4g of dietary fibre per 100g. Each fruit is different for its nutrient content. No single fruit can provide all nutrients or provide superior nutrient contents than another. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" blog I discuss about tht local fruit that was tasty and good for health booster.


(7) BANANA
Banana (Musa spp) are grown in Malaysia for domestic and export market. Among popular species banana grown in Malaysia include Pisang Rastali, Pisang Mas, Pisang Berangan, Pisang Tanduk, Pisang Nipah and few others. The nutritional value (one serving) or one medium (Berangan) (60g) include calories: 62kcal, dietary fibre: 0.3g, fat: 0.2g,  Protein: 3.1g, Potassium: 226.5mg, Vitamin A: 239.2IU,  Vitamin C: 3.4mg, Beta-Carotene: 143.9mcg and also Folate: 11.5mcg. Few reason to eat banana include the good source of fibre. Bananas contain two main types of fibre, resistant starch thst found in unripe bananas. The Pectin nutrien that iIncreases as the banana ripens. Banana also rich in potassium and as a disease-fighting factor. This include the resistant starch is indigestible and ends up in the large intestine, where it becomes food for the good bacteria in the gut. This helps to promote gut health. Both resistant starch and pectin can also offer appetite-reducing effects and increase the feeling of fullness after meals. Studies show that consuming adequate potassium can help in lowering blood pressure. Potassium also helps in regulating muscle contractions and keeps the heart beating regularly. Due to their mineral content and easily digested carbohydrates, bananas can be a good choice for athletes before, during and after endurance exercise. Best way to eat banana are raw and sliced banana to morning cereal or oatmeal helps to enhance flavours and nutrients. Bananas can also replace sugar for baking and cooking. Banana pancakes are a healthier alternative to standard pancake mixes.

(8) SOURSOP
Soursop or Durian Belanda in Malay (Annona muricata) is the most wanted fruit in local market due to the health factor. The nutritional value (one serving): one slice, without seeds (105g) include calories: 68kcal,  Dietary fibre: 1.7g, Fat: 0.4g, Protein: 1.4g, Potassium: 308.5mg, Vitamin A: 31.5IU, Vitamin C: 28.3mg,  Beta-Carotene: 15.7mcg, Folate: 14.7mcg and also Calcium: 12.6mg. Few reason to eat soursop due to it's a great source of vitamin C. Contains compounds with antioxidant abilities such as tannins, saponins, phytosterils, flavonoids and anthraquinones. The report shown that the disease-fighting factor due to its high antioxidants content help reduce oxidative damage and may lower the risk of chronic diseases. In 2012 in vivo and in vitro study found that soursop extract may protect against pancreatic cancer by inhibiting cellular metabolism. Still, studies are ongoing to evaluate the efficacy of soursop as an adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer. The best way to eat soursop by keeping in the soft white flesh in refrigerator as it is best enjoyed cold. It can be used as a base for smoothies, milkshakes and other chilled drinks.
This article divided in 4 segment namely Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Part 4 respectively. Thanks....!

By,
M Anem,
Putrajaya,
Malaysia.
(March 2021).

Sunday, October 24, 2021

LOCAL FRUITS - TASTY HEALTH BOOSTER (Pt 3)

THE LOCAL FRUIT is delicious and packed with nutrients. There are more tha 9 fruit species identified as commercial fruits for domestic and export potential. When it comes to fruit, many Malaysians tend to believe that the imports fruits are more nutritious than local ones. Even when fruits are sometimes and recommended to be included in our diet, more often than not, only imported ones are named. Due to this as reported that many consumers prefer apples, grapes or oranges compared to watermelons, starfruits or mangosteens. According to Pantai Hospital Kuala Lumpur dietitian kown as  Pang Kang Ru says imported fruits may be more expensive but this does not mean they are any healthier. She said each type, whether local or imported has its unique nutritional value. For example, the rambutan has a higher content of vitamin C (38mg vitamin C/100g) compared to the blueberry (9.7mg vitamin C/100g). However, in terms of dietary fibre content, rambutan has only 0.3g of dietary fibre/100g while blueberries have 2.4g of dietary fibre per 100g. Each fruit is different for its nutrient content. No single fruit can provide all nutrients or provide superior nutrient contents than another. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" blog I discuss about tht local fruit that was tasty and good for health booster.


(5) MANGOSTEEN
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) are among few popular fruits in Malaysia. There are two species of mangosteen in Malaysia known as Local Mangosteen and Mesta. The nutritional value (one serving) or three big mangosteen without skin and seeds (270g)are or three big and whole (1.1kg) include calories: 92kcal, dietary fibre: 13.8g, Fat: 2.7g, Protein: 1.6g, Potassium: 121.9mg, Vitamin C: 11.3mg and Calcium: 18.9mg. The reason to eat this fruit due to the rich in antioxidants, xanthones and fibre. The vitamins and minerals are important for bodily functions, including DNA production, muscle contraction, wound healing, immunity, and nerve signalling. Disease-fighting factor for this fruit include antioxidants such as xanthones found in mangosteen may help reduce oxidative stress by neutralising the free radicals.  Xanthones also have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer effects in several studies involving animals. However, more studies are needed to understand how this fruit may reduce inflammation in humans. Since fibre helps to promote healthy gut bacteria, consuming mangosteen may also improve immunity alongside other fruits as part of balanced diet. The best way to eat it include the white inner flesh can be eaten by itself or enjoyed in a smoothie or salad.

(6)  STARFRUIT
The Starfruit or Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) are unique trppical fruit grown in Malaysia. The nutritional value (one serving) of one medium (300g) reported consists of calories: 72kcal, dietary fibre: 5.4g, fat: 0.3g, protein: 2.1g, potassium: 297.4mg, vitamin A: 1502.7IU, vitamin C: 77.4mg, Beta-Carotene: 897.4mcg, calcium: 15mg and folate: 26.8mcg. The reason to eat starfruit include the relatively lower in calories (31kcal/100g) compared to other tropical fruits. It contain decent amount of fibre, vitamin A and C and potassium.  Excellent source of healthy plant compounds, including quercetin, gallic acid, and epicatechin. It is approximately 90 per cent of water by weight which makes starfruit a good source for hydration. Disease-fighting factor due to the vitamin C has antioxidants properties; boosts the immune system; promotes healthy skin, hair and nails; and increases calcium uptake and iron absorption. The healthy plant compounds have powerful antioxidant properties and various health benefits. The best way to eat starfruit either on its own or add into salads.  It can also be added in local dishes such as curries. It can be turned into jam or jelly as well as smoothies and juices.
This article divided in 4 segment namely Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Part 4 respectively. Thanks.

By,
M Anim,
Putrajaya,
Malaysia.
(March 2021).

Monday, October 18, 2021

LOCAL FRUITS - TASTY HEALTH BOOSTER (Pt 2)

THE LOCAL FRUIT is delicious and packed with nutrients. There are more tha 9 fruit species identified as commercial fruits for domestic and export potential. When it comes to fruit, many Malaysians tend to believe that the imports fruits are more nutritious than local ones. Even when fruits are sometimes and recommended to be included in our diet, more often than not, only imported ones are named. Due to this as reported that many consumers prefer apples, grapes or oranges compared to watermelons, starfruits or mangosteens. According to Pantai Hospital Kuala Lumpur dietitian kown as  Pang Kang Ru says imported fruits may be more expensive but this does not mean they are any healthier. She said each type, whether local or imported has its unique nutritional value. For example, the rambutan has a higher content of vitamin C (38mg vitamin C/100g) compared to the blueberry (9.7mg vitamin C/100g). However, in terms of dietary fibre content, rambutan has only 0.3g of dietary fibre/100g while blueberries have 2.4g of dietary fibre per 100g. Each fruit is different for its nutrient content. No single fruit can provide all nutrients or provide superior nutrient contents than another. This article in "Anim Agriculture Technology" blog I discuss about tht local fruit that was tasty and good for health booster.


(3) GUAVA
For me guava (Psidium guava) are one of the best local fruit for fresh consumption. It was sweet, crunchy, juicy and best to eat with 'asam boi'. The n
utritional value (one serving) or ½ fruit and without seeds (150g) reported as calories, 69kcal,   Dietary fibre: 10.2g, Fatt: 0.3g, Protein: 1.7g, Potassium: 43.5mg, Vitamin A: 149.7IU, Vitamin C: 228mg, Beta-Carotene: 89.9mcg, Folate: 21.0mcg and also Calcium: 49.5mg. Many reason to eat guava include the vitamin C content is four times higher per serving compared to orange. Guava are excellent source of dietary fibre and also asa a good source of vitamin A and lycopene. Vitamins A and C together with the antioxidants protect our skin and slow down the ageing process. Vitamin C helps boost immunity and reduced risk of infection. It also aids the absorption of iron from our diet and helps in the production of red blood cells more effectively.  Fibre provides bulks for stool and thus promotes healthy bowel movement and prevents constipation.  As it is full of fibre, guava helps to provide satiety and aids in weight lost indirectly. The best way to eat guava is to get the best vitamins and fibre, eat it fresh with the rind and seeds. The rind has more vitamin C than an entire orange.  Due to its high vitamin C content, consuming guava along with food high in iron such as animal proteins and green leafy vegetables can enhance the absorption of iron. Blend it with other tropical fruits for a salad.

(4) PAPAYA

Papaya or Betik in Malay (Carica papaya) are my favorate fruit and many local in Malaysia. The nutritional value (one serving): one slice and without skin and seeds (210g) consists of Calories: 73kcal, Dietary fibre: 1g, Fat: 0.2g,  Protein: 3.1g, Potassium: 82.2mg,  Vitamin A: 2026.0IU, Vitamin C: 148.9mg, Beta-Carotene: 2437.1mcg, Folate: 29.3mcg and also Calcium: 23.1mg. The reason to eat papaya include the high composistion of vitamins C and A. Papaya also rich in antioxidants known as the carotenoids (including lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin). The papaya disease-fighting factor include antioxidants such as zeaxanthin play an essential role in eye protection by filtering out harmful ultraviolet rays and protects retinal cells from damage. The fibre, potassium and vitamin help in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. The fibre and water content of papaya can also encourage regular bowel activity, which may help lower the risk of colon cancer. Best way to eat papaya is usually eaten on its own. Making smoothies using papaya is another way to consume the fruit. It can be mixed with pineapple, banana and yogurt. This article divided in 4 segment that was Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Part 4 respectively. Thanks!...

By,
M Anim,
Putrajaya,
Malaysia.
(March 2021).