Regenerated Cellulose' spellout in the oil palm industry recently. It related to the 'Membrane' related in which it was the most commercial regenerated cellulose membranes (RCMs) are prepared from cellulose due to its unique hydrophilic properties, high chemical stability and ability to conserve the surrounding environment. Therefore, cellulose is an interesting raw material for an easy process development of RCM production. The cellulose membrane properties are mainly controlled by the surrounding environment, nature and coagulation mechanism. There are many efforts have been undertaken to investigate the coagulation or regeneration process to obtain a certain morphology or cellulose membrane properties. In the past few years there are new and strong organic solvent known as N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) has been developed. This solvent in which also can rapidly dissolve the cellulose without any complex formation. Cellulose fibers and membranes are prepared from the cellulose or NMMO or H2O solution show good mechanical and absorption properties when the cellulose solution agglomerated in water at low temperature via the phase changes method. This is the conventional method to produce RCM without a filler. The other methods are also available to incorporate the filler with the matrices via physical entanglement of polymer chains including the freeze-thaw method. Currently due to the advanced technology many research focus on the research world has mainly been on nanomaterials.
n recent decades, due to the capability of hydrogels to be used in a vast area and the emergence of new versatile materials such as cellulose nanomaterials have open up great new findings that show an excellent inherent chemical as well as physical properties like high specific surface area, high tensile strength, low density, high elastic modulus, reactive surfaces, and are renewable and biodegradable. These great properties have led to broad application prospects like the product known as electroconductives, biomedicals, and optical materials including reinforcing fillers. Due to a more uniform particle size distribution and higher specific surface area, a more mechanically stable self-assembled structure of hydrogel could be formed. Other than that, with the specific cross-linking strategy, nanocellulose hydrogels demonstrate a controllable morphology, high biodegradability, and biocompatibility as well as outstanding mechanical stability. Compared to CNC, the CNF hydrogel is easily formed because it has more entanglement and flexibility. As such, many findings and published works on CNF hydrogels are available. In a previous study, a research group was the first group to show that a CNF hydrogel was possible at low concentration, followed with enzymatic and homogenization treatments. Meanwhile, a CNF hydrogel was successfully formed by adding salt or lowering the pH, and produced aligned hydrogels with oriented fibrils, which was further used as a template for anisotropic nanocomposites. An alkaline treatment was also done on a pulp before defibrillation to alter the crystal structure of CNF because it consists of both crystalline cellulose I and amorphous cellulose. The usage of NaOH concentration will affect the cellulose allomorph by the increase in cellulose II. The hydrogel with a cellulose II crystal structure showed an increase in Young’s modulus compared to the hydrogel with a cellulose I crystal structure due to the firm interdigitation of neighboring cellulose II nanofibers. However, most of the research studies have not reported on the crystallinity index or crystal structure of the CNF materials employed. Furthermore, CNF is frequently used as a reinforcing material to produce tough yet highly flexible hydrogels, especially in biomedical and tissue engineering applications. The addition of cellulose nanomaterials in regenerated cellulose membranes and hydrogels could develop a new product with exceptional properties due to its own great features. This has been proven in several previous studies, which will be further discussed in the next section. As above-mentioned, the cellulose nanomaterials were classified into several categories: CNC, CNF, and BNC. The most common nanocellulose extracted from OPEFB are CNC and CNF. Thanks...