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Thursday, July 16, 2020

MALAYSIA - BANANA PRODUCTION

MALAYSIA BANANA PRODUCTION are estimated about 375,800 metric ton in 2018 based 35,500 hectare planted. While there are various types of bananas, the most cultivated banana type in the world is the Cavendish, which accounts for about half of the global banana production4. Meanwhile, the Cavendish and the Berangan bananas are the most common banana varieties in Malaysia5. The economic lifespan of bananas is about two years6 and they are often intercropped with perennial crops such as rubber and oil palm. In Malaysia, bananas are the most produced fruit in 2017. Planted in almost 35,000 hectares (Ha) of land, production was more than 350,000 metric tonnes (MT) and accounted for 24% of Malaysia’s total fruit production in that year (Figure 1). 32% of the nation’s banana production originates from Johor, which produced 1.5 times more than Pahang and doubled Sabah’s production7. Between 2013 and 2017, Malaysia’s average self-sufficiency ratio (SSR)8 for banana is 103% and it could be said that domestic banana production has been enough to meet domestic needs. Between 2000 and 2018, the average farm, wholesale and retail price of bananas have almost tripled (Figure 2). The rising prices could be the result of various potential demand-and supply-related reasons. For instance, upward prices might be the result of declining banana supply, due to the incidence of diseases or pest (e.g.: Moko, Panama disease) or high production costs10. High prices might also reflect stronger consumer demand for this fruit.

As for Production and Price of banana in Malaysia it was stable for domestic market. While there are various types of bananas, the most cultivated banana type in the world is the Cavendish, which accounts for about half of the global banana production4. Meanwhile, the Cavendish and the Berangan bananas are the most common banana varieties in Malaysia5. The economic lifespan of bananas is about two years6 and they are often intercropped with perennial crops such as rubber and oil palm. In Malaysia, bananas are the most produced fruit in 2017. Planted in almost 35,000 hectares (Ha) of land, production was more than 350,000 metric tonnes (MT) and accounted for 24% of Malaysia’s total fruit production in that year (Figure 1). 32% of the nation’s banana production originates from Johor, which produced 1.5 times more than Pahang and doubled Sabah’s production7. Between 2013 and 2017, Malaysia’s average self-sufficiency ratio (SSR)8 for banana is 103% and it could be said that domestic banana production has been enough to meet domestic needs. See figure 1: Production (MT) and planted area (Ha), selected fruits, 2017 diagram above.

In official statistics, the variety of banana is not mentioned. Cultivars are based on the number of unique banana cultivars recorded in the Banana Cultivar Checklist by ProMusa (n.d.). Note: In Lim (2015) Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) noted that there are over 200 accession (unique specimen in gene banks) of bananas. Between 2000 and 2018, the average farm, wholesale and retail price of bananas have almost tripled. The rising prices could be the result of various potential demand-and supply-related reasons. For instance, upward prices might be the result of declining banana supply, due to the incidence of diseases or pest (e.g.: Moko, Panama disease) or high production costs10. High prices might also reflect stronger consumer demand for this fruit. Notes: Price is the average for various banana varieties (Tanduk, Berangan, Mas, Cavendish, Rastali, Nangka, Embun, Raja and Awak) across different states. Data is mostly incomplete for 2005 and excluded. Prices are in nominal values. Prices also differ according to varieties. In 2018, the Berangan bananas fetch the highest farm price (RM2.25/kg), while the Tanduk bananas fetch the highest wholesale (RM3.70/kg) and retail prices (RM5.35/kg). Additionally, farmers of the Berangan bananas roughly earn 50% of the price consumers pay for this banana in stores11. Meanwhile, they earn 48%, 47%, 39% and 34% for bananas of the Mas, Cavendish, Tanduk and Rastali varieties, respectively (Figure 3). In comparison, farmers in some countries earn only about 5 to 9% of the value paid by consumers for the fruit12. Indeed, Malaysia’s producer price for bananas is also higher than other main banana-producing countries such as Ecuador (largest banana exporter in the world) and the Philippines (largest banana exporter in Southeast Asia).

However, cross-country price differences and value capture by farmers could reflect various underlying issues, which require further in-depth analysis beyond the scope of this article. Moreover, while farming certain banana varieties appears to be lucrative, it is not the only determinant to incentivise banana cultivation among farmers. On one hand, some might be hindered by high production cost, widespread risks of diseases, limited marketing or if the income generated from farming bananas is insufficient to cover rising cost of living. The world produced 113 million (m) MT of bananas, harvested from 5.4m Ha of cultivated land in 2016. However, not all top producers are top exporters of this fruit. India produced 26% of world’s total bananas and its harvested area is 16% of the world’s total area, but its export share in the global banana trade is less than 1%. In fact, global banana trade is dominated by South American countries, particularly Ecuador. The Philippines is the only Southeast Asian country in the top ten banana exporters in 2016. Meanwhile, the United States, Germany, Belgium and Russia are top banana importer. Thanks!..
By,
M Anim,
Senior Agronomist,
Precint 11, Putrajaya,
WP, MAlaysia,,
(12 December 2019).

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