Bulbil (picture above) grows on each leaf bone branching at the outer color is brown and yellow inside and the surface is rough, symmetrical or oval shaped which weighs 1-23 grams, 1-5 cm diameter, fine tissue structure, 4-5 months dormant period and glucomannan content 25-30%. Flowers are fleshy, inflorens and unisexual with male flowers in the middle of the cob. Green, greenish yellow color and will ripen with orange-red. Oval shape, tapering to the base, 40-80 mm diameter and 10-22 cm high. The fruit is formed apomically, arranged in a stalk, greenish pink when young and red when old. An average of 300 eggs per cob, mature for 8-9 months from flowering and dormant seeds for 1 - 2 months. Porang has a vegetative organ consisting of leaves, stems, tubers and roots. Pseudo stems grow for 6 months, then fall and the tubers that have formed enter dormancy. In the next rainy season the tubers grow into new plants. Large tuber will grow flower.
Iles-iles produces a bulbil in the first period, 4-7 bulbils in the second period and 10-20 bulbils in the third period. Bulbil size varies depending on location on branching and plant age. The life cycle starts from seeding to fruiting and ripening plants at 38 - 43 months. Plants will flower if the tuber weighs more than 500 grams and twice the vegetative growth period. Tubers grow maximally after completing the four vegetative periods or before entering the generative period. The shoots use nutrient reserves in seed tubers for stem and leaf growth. Seedlings will rot to be replaced by new tubers after 60 days and will be enlarged using photosynthesis. A. muelleri is a tropical plant and grows well in shady places such as under bamboo clumps and dense forests, altitude 100-600 m, temperature 25-35C, rainfall 300-500 mm/month during periods of vegetative growth, loose soil and pH 6-7.5. Wild plants often grow on river slopes and hill slopes. Tubers contain carbohydrates as glucomannan which is composed of manosa and glucose. Glucomannan polymers have cellulose and galactomannan characteristics that form crystals and fine fibers. Glucomannan will expand 138-200% rapidly in water. Tuber flour is used as food for diabetic patients, reduces cholesterol and blood sugar levels, improves digestive function, improves the immune system and reduces body weight. Source: dlium.com