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Sunday, September 1, 2013

JACKFRUIT - PROPOGATION TECHNIQUES

JACKFRUIT (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is a popular tropical fruits grown in Malaysia recently due to high demand and release of few superior variety. According to Malaysia Department of Agriculture Annual Statistic Reports, there are 4,070 hectare of jackfruit grown and able to produce 28,500 metric ton of fresh fruit annually. Local variety such as J29, J30 (NSI) and J33 (Tekam Yellow) are three most popular clones grown by local farmers. Most Jackfruit Farm are located at specific zones and owned bya small farmers and few private companies at TKPM project. Recently there was a huge demand on jackfruit seedling for mass planting area in few states. For jackfruit plant Propagation, normally the use of seeds is generally preferred because vegetative propagation is quite difficult. However, trees may not exhibit the characters of the parent plant, take longer time to start flowering, and are generally tall. This article I would like to share with all readers in "Anim Agro Technology" jackfruit propogation techniques for seedling preparation.


The seeds should be collected from healthy, mature plants which are prolific producers of fruits with desirable characteristics. Only large seeds are used. Immediately after extraction from the fruit, the seeds are washed in water to remove the slimy coating around the seeds. The horny part of the pericarp is also removed to hasten germination. As a general rule, the seeds are sown immediately without drying because they are recalcitrant (click to read Sexual Propagation: Orthodox vs. Recalcitrant Seeds). If not possible, however, the seeds can be stored in air-tight plastic containers at 20 C to maintain their viability for about 3 months. In sowing, the seeds are laid flat or with their hilum facing downward. Germination should begin within 10 days. It is expected that 80-100% of the seeds will have germinated within 35 to 40 days after sowing.


Growing jackfruit can also be started through vegetative propagation using Stem cuttings and by Air Layering or Marcotting. However, special techniques are necessary, including the use of rooting hormones at the right concentrations for treatments. The Forkert method or patch budding as well as cleft grafting and wedge grafting likewise proved successful. In Thailand as I visit last month, there are reports that suckle grafting is extensively applied in growing jackfruit. It is a form of inarching in which young potted rootstocks are decapitated and inserted in twigs of the mother trees. An research body recently also recommends veneer grafting and epicotyl grafting, also called stone grafting and soft wood grafting. Many farmers and friend asking about the possibility to 'Marcott' jackfruit tree for mass production for commercial supply using vegetative propagation techniques. Is that possible to do? Thanks.

 
By,
M Anem
Senior Agronomists,
Bukit Goh Agriculture Station,
Kuantan, Pahang, 
Malaysia.
)27 Ramadan 1434H)

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