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Sunday, February 24, 2013

VARIETIES OF PAPAYA

PAPAYA (Carica papaya) are popular tropical fruit grown for fresh consumption and processing activities. According to FAO Stastitic data, about 11.2 million metric ton of papaya fesh produce in 2010 from 433,500 hectare in the various countries. Malaysia grow papaya for domestic and export market wirh about 46,000 metric ton exported in 2010. India are the largest papaya producers in the world with about 4.2 million metric ton harvested in 2010. Other major papaya producing countries such as Brazil, Republic Dominica, Mexico and Nigeria. This article I wrote about 16 popular papaya varieties grown in India in the recent record. Some of the varieties are wll established for commercial production and exported to many countries. The varieties are as follows: 

1. Coorg Honey Dew :
This varieties are popular and also known as 'Madhubindu'.  This variety are cultivated for table as well as processing purpose. The variety bears greenish-yellow oblong-shaped fruits with orange thick flesh and good flavour. The variety can be maintained pure by growing in isolation. Due to its excellent fruit quality it fetches good market value. I never taste this variety in Malaysia.



2. Pusa Dwarf :
This variety are considered as a dioecious variety with dwarf plants and medium-sized (1-2 kg) oval fruits. The plant starts bearing from 25 to 30 cm above-ground level and is comparatively drought hardy. This variety is very suitable for high-density planting.


3. Pusa Giant :
The variety of this plants are vigorous, sturdy and tolerant to strong wind. It is a dioecious cultivar with big-sized (2.5-3 kg) fruits, suitable for canning industry. There are possibility to grow this variety later in my country.


4. Pusa Majesty :
This is a gynodioecious line, tolerant to viral diseases and root knot nematodes. The variety is suitable for papain production and is comparable to C0.2 variety for papain yield. The fruits are medium-sized, 1-1.5 kg in weight, round in shape and have better keeping quality. It starts fruiting 146 days from the time of transplanting. The variety is tolerant to root knot nematode.


5. Pusa Delicious :
This is also a gynodioecious line with medium-tall plants, starts yielding 8 months after planting and has good quality fruits (10°-13° Brix). The fruit is medium-sized (1-2 kg) with deep orange flesh having excellent flavour. It is grown as a table purpose variety.


6. Pusa Dwarf:
Medium size fruits, oval in shape and suitable for high-density planting. Not many information given for this veriety due to lack of research may be of not suitable for commercialization. It was a dwarf!


7. CO.1 :
This vatiety are as a result of selection from cultivar Ranchi done by TNAU, Coimbatore. The plant is dwarf in habit, producing the first fruit within 60-75 cm from the ground level. Fruit is medium-sized, spherical, has smooth greenish-yellow skin, flesh orange-yellow, soft, firm. Yhis variety is moderately juicy with good keeping-quality. The objectionable papain odour is practically absent in the fruits.


8. CO.2 :
It is a selection purified from a local type at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore. Fruits are medium-sized, obovate, greenish yellow, ridged at the apex, flesh red in colour, soft to firm, moderately juicy with good keeping-quality. It is a suitable type for extraction of papain. It gives 4-6g dried papain/fruit or 250-300 kg papain/ha.


9. CO. 3 :
The fruit of this hybrid (CO. 2 x Sun Rise Solo) is larger in size when compared with Solo and exhibits all the desirable attributes of Solo. Total soluble solids (TSS) is as high as 13.8° Brix and average fruit weight ranges from 1-1.5 kg. The fruits have a good keeping quality. Each tree yields 100-120 fruits in two years.


10.  CO. 5 :
It is a selection from Washington and isolated for its high papain production. It produces consistently 14-15 g dry papain/fruit. It gives 75-80 fruits/tree in two years with an average yield of 1,500-1,600 kg dried papain/ha.


11.  Washington :
It is a table purpose variety. Fruits are round to ovate, medium-large in size with few seeds. When ripe, skin attains a bright yellow colour. The average weight of fruit ranges from 1.5-2 kg. Male and female plants are separate.


12.  Solo :
It is a table purpose variety. The fruits are small with deep pink pulp and a sweet taste. Excellent for kitchen garden. I know this variety due to the availability in our Africulture Station. The fuit are crossed with other variety in Malaysia for Exotica Papaya that was popular for domestic and export market.


13.  Ranchi :
It is a variety from Bihar and popular in south India. The fruits are oblong with dark yellow pulp and sweet taste.


14.  IIHR39 and IIHR54 :
Developed at IIHR, Bangalore. This variety bears medium sized sweet fruit with high TSS (14.5° Brix) and better shelf life.


15.  Taiwan-785 :
This variety is cultivated for table as well as processing purpose. The plant is dwarf in habit, producing the first fruit within 60-75 cm from the ground level. Fruits are oblong with thick orange red sweet pulp. Each tree yields 100-125 fruits in one year. It has a good keeping quality and disease tolerant.


16.  Taiwan-786 :
It is a gynodioecious variety cultivated for table as well as processing purpose. The fruits are oblong with a tasty sweet pulp having few seeds. The plant starts bearing fruits from 100 cm above the ground level. The fruit weigh between 1-3 kg and has excellent keeping quality.

Among above varieties, I familiar with Solo varieties. The othe 15 varieties I am not familiar their characteristic. I hope to study more on these varieties later. Thanks.



By,
M Anem
Seior Agronomist
Melaka,
Malaysia
(23 Safar 1434H)
Adapted from website sources. 

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