TROPICAL FRUIT industry has an expected production to reach 65 million tonnes in 2012 from only 63 million tonnes in 2010. From international report showing that the trend of tropical fruit production increase gradually from major producing country and new area. Developing countries contribute about 98% of world total production whereby the developed country contribute only 2% (because of the geographic and climate reason. From my study shown that Asia and Pacific region contribute 56% of the global tropical fruit, Latin America and Caribbean about 30% and Africa Region about 11% in 2011. USA, Europe and Oceania only contribute less than 1% in this industry. The temperate fruit are produce mainly from developed country such as in Europe, USA, China and other temperate country. Developing Country continues to expand and produce tropical fruits from only 96% in 2000 to 99% in 2011. This morning article I would like to share my knowledge about Major Tropical Fruit in this Industry.
The five (5) major tropical fruit produced and grown are BANANA, MANGO, PINEAPPLE, PAPAYA and AVOCADO. The next four in the listing were CITRUS, DURIAN, RAMBUTAN and JACK FRUIT. In economic categories few other tropical fruit are included such asLYCHEES, PASSION FRUITS andGUAVAS. FAO projection in 2014 indicate annual increase in export volume by 1.4% for mango, 1.7% for pineapples, 2% for avocado and 5.6% for papaya. World largest tropical fruit tree are Mango followed by Papaya and Avocado. Overall, import demand for tropical fruits for the next decade is expected to increase, thus import volume is also projected to expand. The US, European Community and Japan remain the largest import markets for tropical fruits.
Numerous edible fruit species are found over the archipelagoes, offering wide variation of nutritional quality, taste, flavor and seasonal availability. Some 400 species of fruits and nuts are grown in Southeast Asia. Ninety percent (or 360 species) are woody plants; the rest are herbaceous species (banana, papaya and pineapple). 250 are fruit trees, 227 (or 90%) of which are indigenous to Southeast Asia .Some of fruit species (underutilized crops) have become commercial, but have not been explored optimally e.g jackfruit, breadfruit, etc. Recently, market potential of tropical fruits, both for foreign as well as domestic market, increased significantly due to population growth, better living condition, and promotion of international tourism.
Asian contribution to world production of tropical fruits:
• Asia supplies > ½ of total world production of Banana (53%)
• Leading producer India contributes 24% of the world total (70.89 million tons in 2004)
• Brazil and Ecuador rank 2nd and 3rd contributing 9.3% and 8.5% respectively
• China, Philippines, Indonesia, and Thailand rank 4th , 5th , 6th and 9th respectively.
Mangoes (most important tropical fruit) in terms of production followed by pineapple by 2010.
Asia & the Pacific account for the largest share of world production (46% ) for processing rather than fresh fruit export.
Like banana – mangoes are predominantly produced in India(45% out of the 24.34 million ton world production in 2004). Other key producers are Thailand and Mexico, each supplying 7% in 2004. Pakistan, Indonesia, and the Philippines ranked 4th, 5th and 6th, respectively. Asia’s contribution totaled 74% of world mango production. Costa Rica (major supplier of fresh pineapple exports) from Latin America and the Caribbean & so also Africa (16% of the global total; Côte d’Ivoire - dominant exporter.
The declining trend in pineapple production in developed countries such as United Statesis expected to continue; too large to be offset by gains in Australia and South Africa, resulting in an overall annual decline of 2.1% from 2002-04 to 2014. World production of pineapple was 15.48 million tons in 2004 with 2.8% increase over the previous year. Nearly half of the total produce came from Asia, notably the Philippines, Thailand and China. Other major producers are China (8.5%) and India (7.8%). India is the major producer of papaya (31%), followed by Brazil (19%).
Avocadoes mostly come from Mexico (32%), Indonesia (8%) and the US (6%). Other tropical fruits produced in smaller volumes, including inter aliadurians, guavas, rambutans, carambolas, jackfruits, longans and passion fruits, are referred to as minor tropical fruits. Production of avocado fruits in Malaysia are few due to not many local farmers and consumers know the potential of this fruits. Avocado only planted in few agriculture station for observation and need more promotion to expand this fruit in Malaysia.
This paper presented in International Training Program under Malaysian Technical Cooperation Program (MTCP) for Agriculture Sector in AETC, Serdang, Selangor in Mac 2012.
(12 RabiulAwal 1433H)