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Tuesday, September 6, 2011

WEED IN PADDY AREA

Weeds are common UNWANTED plants in paddy growing area. Malaysia among nation in the world growing paddy for about 763,700 hectare annually with total rice production estimated 2.545 million metric ton in 2010. Paddy was planted in granary area for 80% of total production area located in Kedah, Kelantan, Perak and Selangor and Perlis. Our self sufficient level for rice production ranged between 75-85%. Other states growing paddy in non-granary area. Kedah has the largest paddy growing in Malaysia about 210,600 hectare producing 1.104 million metric ton in 2010. This article explain the common weed found in Malaysia on rice field based on my 25 years observation and involvement in this commodity.


Rice production in Malaysia about 3,782 metric ton per hectare estimated in 2010 based on previous data. The Crop Cutting Survey (CCS) was conducted to determine rice production in Malaysia by DOA and MOA. Selangor produce the highest yield in this region with an average production of 5.3 metric ton per hectare. Many factors determine rice production in Malaysia. WEEDS is one of the factors we will discuss in this article. I experience to involve in Paddy Extension Program at many districts in Johore for more than 15 years. Weed existence in paddy field affect the yield and disturb the water supply to the up most area. The tropical humid and high intensity of sunlight enable the weed to grow faster than some paddy varieties. 


There are about 27 weed species found in paddy field and their surroundings in Malaysia as I recorded. The weed may affect paddy plants seriously or not depend on the weeds characteristic. Some weed grows in between the paddy plants others in the drain, on the ban and some look like paddy plants. Weed competes for nutrients, sunlight, growing space and the worst suppress the paddy plants. Weeds in paddy area normally controlled by chemicals, the management of water level, manual control and many others. The weed in the drain and canal normally mantained by Department of Drainage and Irrigation according to scheduled period.


Below are the 27 weed list is paddy area in Malaysia:
    
         LOCAL NAME (BONTANICAL NAME)

  1. Keremak (Althernanthera sessilis)
  2. Rumput Setawar (Borreria latifolia)
  3. Lumut (Ceratophyllum domersum)
  4. Rumput Air (Cyperus deformis)
  5. Padi Burung (Echinochloa colona)
  6. Padi Burung / Rumput Sambau (Echinocloacrusagali)
  7. Aring-aring (Elipta alba)
  8. Keladi Bunting (Eichhornia crassipes)
  9. Rumput Tahi Kerbau (Fimbristylis miliaceae)
  10. Cholok Cina (Ischaemum rugosum)
  11. Padi Angin (Weedy Rice) - Photo Next
  12. Rumput Ekor Tebu (Leptochloa chinensis)
  13. Paku rawan (Limnocharis flava)
  14. Tinggir Bangau atau Inai Pasir ( Ludwigia adsendens)
  15. Maman Pasir (Ludwigia hyssopifolia)
  16. Keladi agas ( Monochoria viginalis)
  17. Sikup dada ( Oxalis corniculata)
  18. Karunong Padi ( Panicum repens)
  19. Keladi air ( Sagittaria guyanensis)
  20. Menderong atau Menerung (Sirpus grossus)
  21. Cabai kera (Spenochloea zeylanica)
  22. Rumput Tahi Ayam (Ageratum connyzoides)
  23. Akar ruas-ruas (Asystasia intrusa)
  24. Rumput Parit (Axonopus compresus)
  25. Rumput Setawar ( Borreria latifolia)
  26. Rumput Duri Bulat (Chenchrus echinatus)
  27. Rumput Kapalterbang. (Chromolaena odorata)
All weeds above was identified by Dept Of Agriculture Malaysia. The extension officer has a regular surveillance program to check the existence of dangerous pest, weeds and diseases in paddy field. Extension activity in paddy area need proper visiting program due to its necessity.


WEED...WEED...WEED....
SEED...SEED...SEED....
FEED...FEED...FEED...
SWEET...SWEET...SWEET...


By
M Anem
Putrajaya
MALAYSIA

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