Coconut was a multi-usage commodity from the roots, stems , nuts, leaves and other components. Coconut Milk is is main target for food product and processed to many other food and nutritional food product. Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) was the latest innovation enriched with other nutritional and medical value product for health consumption. Non Food product from coconut varies from House structure, Roofing Attap, Sweeper, Bridges, Planks, Plywood, Car Cushion, Charcoal, firewood and many others.
Coconut was an erected type of tree as single trunk with maximum height reach up to 60 meter. The root system mostly hair root with no tap root. There is about 1,500 - 8,000 hair root each tree. Pollination process are natural by wind, bees, ants and other insects except for breeding purpose by human being. The fruit matured in 12-14 months after fertilization completed. Composition of matured nuts consists of 35% husks, 12 % nut shell, 28% white flesh and 25% water.
Coconut able to grow in many range of soil type from mineral soil, acidic soil, bris soil, peat soil and best on flat condition. In Malaysia about 12 variety of coconut was grown by smallholder or estates. The traditional variety was Malaysian Tall (MT). Other variety was Malaysian Red Dwarf (MRD), Malaysian Yellow Dwarf (MYD), Malaysian Green Dwarf (MGD), MAWA, MATAG, West African Tall, Tagnanan, Rennel, Aromatic/ pandan, MARREN and MAMA. MATAG Hybrid variety was the most recomended variety due to its potential yield and early maturity period. MATAG variety are able to produce 140 nuts/ tree/year with planting density was 178 tree/ha or about 25,000 nuts/ year/ha. Average numbers count MATAG nuts about 10-22 / bunch.
Seedling selection is the critical stage in coconut growing activity. Ensure the certified seed or seedling sources are recommended by Department of Agriculture or certified private estates. New planting area cleared from any other trees because coconut required 100% sunlight. Planting distance differ depend on coconut variety and planting system. As my experience in Coconut Rehabilitation Program in Muar for 4 years seems that for MATAG (8.1mx8.1m - 178 tree/ha), MAWA (8.1mx8.1m), Dwarf Variety (.5mx6.5m 272 tree/ha) and pandan (65 m x 6.5 m). To improve fertility use 3-5 mt GML. Planting hole 0.45m x 0.45mx0.45m prepared with 200 gm Phosphate. Most new planting program intercropped with banana, pineapple, tapioca , vegetables or other food crops.
Manuring program for coconut varies from different soil type and the age. Early stage requirement was NPK 15:15:15 about 1 kg/tree/year than increase to 1.5 kg/ tree/ yr the following year and after 5 years about 5.5 kg/tree/year with 12:12:17:2 (For fruiting). Manuring program application 3 times per year and apply around the canopy of the tree. Liming on acidic soil done accordingly especially on coastal area.
|Attack of rhinocerous beetle.|
Harvesting of coconut depends on the consumer needs either young coconut for drinking or matured old coconuts. Young coconut collected using special method or rope so the nut wont fall direct to the ground and damage. Most old variety matured after 15 years with stable nuts production. Malaysian Tall able to produce 6,000-8,000 nuts annually (124 tree), Malaysian Dwarf (27,000-30,000 nut/year), MATAG/MAWA (20,000-25,000 nuts/year) and Pandan Variety (27,000 nuts /year). The nuts production lower during dry spell.
Cost of production for MATAG variety estimated about RM 4,344/ ha for initial development. Economic analysis shown that if the nut sold at RM 0.60/nuts, therefore the gross farm income would be RM 6,566/year or RM 131,122 for 20 years. NPV for 1 hectare coconut was RM 33,068 and IRR about 27.91% and value of BC ratio calculated at 1.74. Growing coconut is a profitable venture if properly plan and patient.
GROW COCONUT... SLOW RETURN...
COLLECT YOUNG NUTS.... IT WAS SUDDEN...
COCONUT MILKS .... PROCESSED TO VCO....
ENRICHED VCO.... HEALTHY FOOD....