Thursday, August 5, 2010

Durian Clones in Malaysia

Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr) was the largest fruit tree grown in Malaysia with about 110,000 hectare in 2009. Durian was planted from traditional system to commercial system with mixed clones. Department of Agriculture identified more than 200 durian clones in Malaysia since 1934 but today only 10 clones was recommended for mass production. This article I would like to share my experience about durian based on mya involvement in this fruit for more than 25 years.
Durian maturity period between 5 – 7 years after planting depend on cultivars. The duration from flowering to harvesting ranged between 90 -1 20 days. Phythopthora disease is the scariest disease in durian plantation. Other problem in growing durian was the attack of pests such as Stem borer, fruit borer, squirel, monkey and many others. Durian mostly eaten fresh and only subquality was processed for other purposes. Durian rich of Vitamin A (150 mg), Vitamin C (23.3 mg), Protein (2.7 gm), Fats (3.4 gm), Carbohydrate (27.9 gm) and Ferrous (1.9 mg).

This article may be the best reference for all readers to know about the most popular and Top 13 durian clones in Malaysia. You may know the clones number or Common names or local names but… Do you know the actual fruit? Only the experts will know the exact clones!

Below are the most popular clones in Malaysia:

1. D 24
The first popular clones in Malaysia that everybody able to remember is D24. This clones also known as “BUKIT MERAH”. According to my study this clone was originated from Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and registered by DOA on 30 Nov 1937. The fruit was medium size with round shape. The flesh was thick with yellow color and considered a high quality durian fruits. Many locals ask for D24 due to its sweetness and a little bitter taste. D24 took about 105 – 115 days from flowering to maturity period and fall. The price of D24 considered medium range and one of the highest demands on this clones. D24 was planted throughout the country but concentrated area was at Bentong, Pahang, Northern Part of Johor and Perak. I like D24 due to ita taste and easy to open compare to other clones.

2. D 99
This clone was also known locally as “KOP KECIL” and study shows that this clone was believed from Thailand. This clone was registered on 17 Jun 1970 to Dept of Agriculture Malaysia. Kop means “Frog” in Thai language and this clone has 8 other sub-cultivars. Only 2 sub-cultivars were popular in Malaysia that was Kop Kecil and Kop Besar. This clone produce an average of 2.5 kg each fruits (Kop Kecil) and up to 3-7 kg per fruit for Kop Besar. The fruit was medium size and round shape with bronze green color skin. It has a small size and sharp thorn. D99 has yellowish flesh color and very thick with medium big seed size. D99 produce less number of fruit each tree compare to other clones. I able to eat D99 only 2 time during my tenure for 25 years.

3. D123
This clone is very easy to remember...1,2,3 but this clone also believed from Thailand and known locally as “Chanee”. It was registered on 24 July 1971. D123 has a long and big size of fruit compare to other clones.
It has a green grayish skin color. The thorn was larger in size compare to other clones and at the tips was grayish color. The flesh was golden Yellow in color and produce strong aroma with medium sweet taste. Not many people grow this clone and mostly at the northern Peninsular Malaysia.

4. D 145
This clone was originated from Beserah, Pahang and locally called as “DURIAN TOK BESERAH” or “DURIAN TUAN MEK” or “DURIAN HIJAU”. It was registered to DOA on 30 October 1981. The fruit shape was round and large size with medium skin thickness. Skin color was purely Green. It has a very thick yellowish flesh and very fine texture. D145 was very sweet and considered as a compact durian due to its characteristic. This clne was mostly grown in Central and West Pahang and North Johor in Jementah and Tangkak. I used to eat this clone from our Agriculture Station in Tangkak during Durian Festive Season at low government tag price.

5. D 158
This clone was also known as “TANGKAI PANJANG” or “KAN YAU”. This clone believed originated from Thailand and registered on 30 Jun 1987 to Department of Agriculture Malaysia. The fruit shape was elongated round with long stalk (up to 17 cm long). It has a light green skin color with sharp and short small thorn. D158 is one of the clones hardly to ‘crack’ the fruits. It has a thick and dark green flesh with sweet and a little bitter taste. I able to eat this clones from my close friend in Tangkak and Segamat few times.

6. D 159
This clone was originated from Thailand and registered on 30 Jun 1987. Other local names for this clone were “MUN THONG”. This clone has a big size fruit up to 4 – 6 kg each. The fruit has long roundish shape with special size thorn and shape. It has a big size flesh with yellow color and taste very sweet when reach maximum maturity period (fall to the ground). This clone was identified as the best clone for making “DURIAN CHIP” using vacuum fry technology. I managed to involve and visit a vacuum fry factory processing D159 durian at Muar recently. I visited few D159 farms at Tangkak area (Around Gunong Ledang) with FAMA officer to check the fruiting season. Early stage of D159 very good but Mr Chin farm complained about Cancker Disease after 7 years of planting D159.

7. D 169
This clone was believed also from Thailand and registered on May 1989. This clone other names was “TOK LITOK” and was popular at Tanah Merah Kelantan. This clone has medium small fruit size (between 1.5 – 3 kg each fruit) with long roundish shape. It has a sharp long thorn with yellowish thick flesh. I never eat this clone due to not able to get a ' free test' fruit from corlicks may be...

8. D 188
This clone was registered on 30 August 1991 and considered as one of the latest released durian clone in Malaysia. This clone was originated from MARDI Jerangau, Terengganu as a result from long research done by plant breeder between Clone D24 and D7. Other names for this clone were MDUR78 (Or Mardi Durian – may study started from 1978). The fruit shape was elongated round with weighed between 1.5 – 1.8 kg. It has yellowish green skin color. D188 has thick, fine texture and sweet taste flesh and medium aroma smell. It has medium size seed with ability to crack after 70 hours from harvesting. I have tested this clones from my close friend farm at Pagoh Muar few times.

9. D 189
This durian clone was also from MARDI Jeranggau Terengganu as a cross between Variety D24 and variety D7. Clone D189 also known as “MDUR 79” and registered on 30 August 1991. The fruit has round shape with average weight about 1.0 – 1.6 kg per fruit. The skin was very thick and dark green color. It has a thick flesh with yellowish color and strong smell. There were normally 3 ulas /pangsa arrangement.This clone are popular may be due to its tatse with a bitter-sweet taste.

10. D 190
This durian clone was also from MARDI Jeranggau Terengganu as a cross between Variety D24 and variety D7. Clone D189 also known as “MDUR 88” and registered on 1 July 1992. The fruit has round shape with average weight about 1.0 – 1.6 kg per fruit. The skin was very thick and yellowish green color. It has a thick flesh with golden yellow color and medium strong aroma. I never eat the flesh this clone.

11. D 168
This clone was very popular recently due to its high demand from consumer. This clones also known as “HAJJAH ASMAH”, DURIAN MAS MUAR” or more popular as “DURIAN IOI” believed originated from Muar (My home town). It has a medium size fruit with round shape and short stalk (only about 4 cm) . The skin was grayish green color with an average weight about 1.5 kg per fruit. The special about this clone was the yellowish orange flesh color and medium thickness with a sweet-bitter taste. It priced between RM 7.00 – RM 10.00 per kg during last season. I tasted many times of this clone and further more my father planted 5 trees of D168 in my kampong!

12. D 175
This clone was also known as “UDANG MERAH” and believed to be originated from Pulau Pinang. It was registered on 4 Jun 1990. I met one of the D175 farm owner last week (Mr James) at Kg. Balik Pulau Penang and he said the current ex-farm price for Udang Merah between RM 30.00 – RM 45.00 per kilogram!… WOW WHAT A HIGH PRICE?...he said the durian lover does not bother about the price..They want just Udang Merah. This clone has yellowish Red Flesh color and I have tasted a very special characteristic in D175. The fruit weight averaged at 1.5 – 3 kg per fruit.

13. D 197
This clone was the best durian clone on demand recently. The D197 also called as “DURIAN KUNYIT” was registered on 9 Disenber 1993 and believed to be originated from Tanah Merah District in Kelantan. It was more popular with the names of “MUSANG KING” due to its promotion by a durian farm owner in Gua Musang District few years ago. The fruits were elongated round shape with light green skin color. It has a heavy green flesh color and produce sweet-bitter taste and very thick. Last two week this clone priced at RM 20.00 – RM 25.00 per kilogram.

Durian clones are selected from various locations with specific recommendation characteristic each clones. DOA ensures the clones are the best quality to meet the consumer taste such as appearance, sweetness, color, durability, seedless and others. The non-cloned durian was planted without any preference but some of them are also good quality. Not many locals knows either so called D24 is the genuine clones when they buy roadside...the buyer has to rely and thrust the fruit seller and pay at a premium price for so claimed good clones.

Knowing durian clones from Malaysia was a terrific job. Durian as “KING OF THE FRUIT” may be known as a seasonal fruit and produced about 2-3 months annually but nowadays we can get fresh durian from hypermarket any time. If ypu got trouble with 'warm sickness' after eating durian then I would advice you to get Mangoesteen that able to stabilize your body temperature because mangoesteen are "QUEEN OF THE FRUIT". I practiced this 'Petua" for many years. More study and research has to be done to promote durian industry in Malaysia. A special replanting program of non-cloned durian with the new popular durian clones should be on going activity. I believed in future there is a shortage in fresh durian supply in Malaysia due to more farmers chopping down their durian tree to oil palm vegetation. One day…. Durian is very expensive….!


M Anem
Tangkak Johor

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