Saturday, July 31, 2010


The ROOT or parts of roots, Stems, Leaves and Fruits of many plant species have become specialized to serve adaptive purposes besides the primary functions for all plants. I learn about roots first time during Agriculture Science subject in 1974 during form Four in SMT Johor Bahru. Now I would like to refresh the topic about root with all of you with some reference from ...
There was many types of root system in plants. Below are some explanations about roots as I can remember...

Adventitious roots arise out-of-sequence from the more usual root formation of branches of a primary root, and instead originate from the stem, branches, leaves, or old woody roots. They commonly occur in monocots and pteridophytes, but also in many dicots, such as clover (Trifolium), ivy (Hedera), strawberry (Fragaria) and willow (Salix). Most aerial roots and stilt roots are adventitious. In some conifers adventitious roots can form the largest part of the root system.

Aerating roots (or knee root or knee or pneumatophores or Cypress knee): roots rising above the ground, especially above water such as in some mangrove genera (Avicennia, Sonneratia). In some plants like Avicennia the erect roots have a large number of breathing pores for exchange of gases.

Aerial roots: This types of root was roots entirely above the ground such as in ivy (Hedera) or in epiphytic orchids. They function as prop roots, as in maize or anchor roots or as the trunk in strangler fig. Areal root normally has a special function and able to absorb nitrogen from surrounding air.

Contractile roots are the roots that they pull bulbs or corms of monocots, such as hyacinth and lily, and some taproots, such as dandelion, deeper in the soil through expanding radially and contracting longitudinally. They have a wrinkled surface. This type of roos systam may be stored extra food and used as source of consumable roots.

Coarse roots: Roots that have undergone secondary thickening and have a woody structure. These roots have some ability to absorb water and nutrients, but their main function is transport and to provide a structure to connect the smaller diameter, fine roots to the rest of the plant.

Fine roots: Primary roots usually located at the tip of rooting system. Fine roots may be at the soil surface or deep under the plants rooting system underground. This roos was considered the 'hardworking roots' due to its ability to absorb nutrients and water from surrounding area. The fine roos was so hugh in numbers and function efficiently for most plants.

Haustorial roots: roots of parasitic plants that can absorb water and nutrients from another plant, such as in mistletoe (Viscum album) and dodder.
Propagative roots: roots that form adventitious buds that develop into above ground shoots, termed suckers, which form new plants, as in Canada thistle, cherry and many others.

Proteoid roots or cluster roots: dense clusters of rootlets of limited growth that develop under low phosphate or low iron conditions in Proteaceae and some plants from the following families Betulaceae, Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Moraceae, Fabaceae and Myricaceae.

Stilt roots: these are adventitious support roots, common among mangroves. They grow down from lateral branches, branching in the soil.
Storage roots: these roots are modified for storage of food or water, such as carrots and beets. They include some taproots and tuberous roots.
Structural roots: large roots that have undergone considerable secondary thickening and provide mechanical support to woody plants and trees.

Surface roots: These proliferate close below the soil surface, exploiting water and easily available nutrients. Where conditions are close to optimum in the surface layers of soil, the growth of surface roots is encouraged and they commonly become the dominant roots.

Tuberous roots: A portion of a root swells for food or water storage, e.g. sweet potato. A type of storage root distinct from taproot. In Malayisa crop like sweet potato, Yam, Tapioca and Ginger grow well using this type of root system.
To learn about root we have to read many journals. There was special function of root and any plants able to grow vigrously with proper rooting syatem.


M Anem

No comments:

Post a Comment